Unstable Heart Failure

  • Carl V. Leier
  • David A. Orsinelli


Unstable heart failure represents the clinical state of progressively worsening or decompensated heart failure, which, if not improved within a reasonable time (usually minutes to hours), often evolves into markedly symptomatic heart failure, cardiovascular collapse, and shock or death. The clinical settings include, among others, the patient who arrives in the emergency room in acute pulmonary edema, the patient with postinfarction cardiogenic shock, the patient who cannot be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass after cardiac surgery, or the chronic heart failure patient who is experiencing a rather abrupt worsening of symptoms. Most patients with unstable heart failure must be approached with a certain sense of urgency.


Heart Failure Acute Myocardial Infarction Chronic Heart Failure Left Anterior Descend Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl V. Leier
  • David A. Orsinelli

There are no affiliations available

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