Neurohumoral, Renal, and Vascular Adjustments in Heart Failure

  • Anju Nohria
  • Jorge A. Cusco
  • Mark A. Creager


Congestive heart failure resulting from left ventricular dysfunction is accompanied by peripheral circulatory changes that influence cardiac function and contribute to the clinical manifestations of heart failure. Neurohumoral systems that modulate both vascular tone and the retention of salt and water are activated. These include the sympathetic nervous system, the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system, arginine vasopressin, and the natriuretic peptides. In addition, the peripheral circulation undergoes local changes in response to heart failure that are fundamental to the pathophysiology of this disease state. Such changes include an increased release of endothelin and prostaglandins, as well as a possible decrease in the activity of nitric oxide. In addition, there may be enhanced local production of angiotensin II.


Heart Failure Nitric Oxide Congestive Heart Failure Chronic Heart Failure Natriuretic Peptide 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anju Nohria
  • Jorge A. Cusco
  • Mark A. Creager

There are no affiliations available

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