Signs in Oklahoma and Ellensburg

  • William A. Hillix
  • Duane M. Rumbaugh
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


When Roger and Deborah Fouts were married in 1964 they could not have known about the journey they were about to undertake. They were students at Long Beach State, and both of them wanted to work with children. However, 2 years later Roger found himself being interviewed by Allen Gardner at the University of Nevada in Reno, as a potential research assistant to work with the young Washoe while Roger pursued his Ph.D. in psychology.1 Roger was sure that the interview had been a disaster and that he had no chance to get the assistantship he had to have to survive—until Allen took him, as a kind of consolation prize, to see Washoe. She leapt into Roger’s arms and gave him a giant hug, something that Roger never again saw her do with a stranger. Washoe had hired Roger! More than 35 years later, she still has not fired him. That central fact has directed the Foutses’ lives.


Sign Language American Sign Solitary Confinement Captive Chimpanzee Juvenile Chimpanzee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. Fouts, with S. Mills, Next of kin (William Morrow & Co., NY, 1997 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Blum, The monkey wars (Oxford University Press, 1994 ).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Peterson, and J. Goodall, Visions of Caliban ( Houghton-Mifflin, Boston, 1993 ).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Fouts, Transmission of a human gestural language in a chimpanzee mother-infant relationship, in: The ethological roots of culture, edited by, R. A. Gardner, B. T. Gardner, B. Chiarelli, and F. X. Plooij ( Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1994 ), pp. 251–270.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Fouts, The use of remote video recordings to study the use of American Sign Language by chimpanzee when no humans are present, in: The ethological roots of culture, edited by, R. A. Gardner, B. T. Gardner, B. Chiarelli, and F. X. Plooij ( Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1994 ), pp. 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Fouts, (1998). On the psychological well-being of chimpanzees. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1(1), 65–73; R. Fouts (2001). The state of the planet of the apes. Friends of Washoe, 22, 1, 3–5; R. Fouts (2002). Darwinian reflections on our fellow apes. In B. Beck et al. (Eds), Great apes and humans: The ethics of coexistence. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press (pp. 191–211 ).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Fouts with Mills (1997).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Blum (1994).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Peterson and J. Goodall (1993).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Fouts ( 1998, 2001, 2002 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. Hillix
    • 1
  • Duane M. Rumbaugh
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Psychology and BiologyGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Iowa Primate Learning SanctuaryDes MoinesUSA

Personalised recommendations