Cytochrome Oxidase Activity of Mitochondria from Ischemic and Reperfused Myocardium

  • A. Toleikis


Polarographic measurements show that activity of cytochrome oxidase (CO), assayed as ascorbate plus TMPD oxidase, is decreased in the mitochondria (M) from postischemic areas of rabbit heart 1, 6, and 9 days after temporary (1-hr) coronary artery occlusion (CAO). This effect is observable only in the absence of added cytochrome c. Cytochrome oxidase activity in the cytochrome c-containing medium was not different from the control level. Levels of cytochromes c + c 1 and a were substantially lower in tissue from postischemic areas and elevated in the intact tissue 1 and 6 days after temporary CAO as compared with control hearts. Stoichiometry of the cytochromes was not changed. After 1 or 4 hr of permanent CAO, CO activity (plus cytochrome c) of ischemic M was equal to that of M from intact area; CO activity (with or without cytochrome c) was reduced after 0.5 and 1 hr but elevated after 3 or 4 hr of in vitro ischemia as compared with control. The changes of CO activity in infarcted human heart M were similar to those in rabbits after temporary CAO; CO activity was restored after addition of cytocrome c. The data suggest that leakage of cytochrome c occurs during isolation of M and is more pronounced in ischemia-damaged M.


Coronary Artery Occlusion Rabbit Heart Heart Mitochondrion Ischemic Area Hypotonic Medium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Capaldi, R. A., and Briggs, M. 1976. The structure of cytochrome oxidase. In: A. Martonosi (ed.), The Enzymes of Biological Membranes, Volume 4, pp. 87–102. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carroll, B. J., and Welman, E. 1979. Loss of respiratory enzyme activity in anoxic myocardium. Effect of propranolol. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 11:1209–1214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caughey, W. S., Wallace, W. J., Volpe, J. A., and Yoshikawa, S. 1976. Cytochrome c oxidase. In: P. Boyer (ed.), The Enzymes, Volume 13, Part C, 3rd ed. pp. 299–344. Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Challoner, D. R. 1968. Respiration in myocardium, Nature 217:78–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chien, K. R., Pfau, R. G., and Farber, J. L. 1979. Ischemic myocardial cell injury. Am. J. Pathol. 97:505–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Constatinescu, S., Filipescu, G., Laky, D., Constantinesku, N. M., Ratea, E., and Halalau, F. 1978. Biochemical and ultrastructural alterations of the mitochondrial fraction in experimental acute ischemia. Rev. Roum. Biochim. 15:189–195.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ekholm, R., Kerstell, J., Olson, R., Rudenstam, C.-M., and Svanborg, A. 1968. Morphologic and biochemical studies of dog heart mitochondria after short periods of ischemia. Am. J. Cardiol. 22:312–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Evtodienko, J. V., and Mokhova, E. N. 1967. [Quantitative measurements of cytochromes in mitochondria.] In: V. A. Yakovleva (ed.), [Mechanisms of Respiration, Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Fixation,] pp. 35–40. Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fetisova, T. V., Frolkis, R. A., Tsiomik, V. A., Smirnova, I. P., and Likhtenstein, I. E. 1976. [Activity of enzymes in heart and serum at the experimental myocardial infarction.] Kardiologiia 16:110–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gebhard, M. M., Denkhaus, H., Sakai, K., and Spieckermann, P. G. 1977. Energy metabolism and enzyme release. J. Mol. Med. 2:271–283.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glagoleva, V. V., and Chechulin, J. S. 1968. [Ultrastructural Basis of Heart Muscle Function Alterations. Atlas.] Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gornall, A. G., Bardavill, C. J., and David, M. M. 1949. Determination of serum proteins by means of the biuret reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 177:751–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hearse, D. J., Humphrey, S. M., Feuvray, D., and deLeiris, J. 1976. A biochemical and ultrastructural study of the species variation in myocardial cell damage. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 8:759–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Idell-Wenger, J. A., Grotyohann, L. W., and Neely, J. R. 1978. Coenzyme A and carnitine distribution in normal and ischemic hearts. J. Biol. Chem. 253:4310–4318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jennings, R. B., and Ganote, C. E. 1976. Mitochondrial structure and funtion in acute myocardial ischemic injury. Circ. Res. 38(Suppl. I):80–89.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jennings, R. B., Herdson, P. B., and Sommers, H. M. 1969. Structural and functional abnormalities in mitochondria isolated from ischemic dog myocardium. Lab. Invest. 20:548–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lemberg, M. R. 1969. Cytochrome oxidase. Physiol. Rev. 49:48–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mitin, K. S. 1974. [Electron-Microscopic Analysis of Heart at Myocardial Infarction.] Medicine, Moscow.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mittnacht, S., Sherman, S., Jr., and Farber, J. L. 1979. Reversal of ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction. J. Biol. Chem. 254:9871–9878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mokhova, E. N., and Zhigacheva, I. V. 1977. [Content of cytochromes in liver mitochondria and homogenate during adaptation to cold.] In: S. E. Severin (ed.), [Mitochondria. Energy Accumulation and Regulation of Enzymatic Reactions], pp. 138–143. Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nicholls, P. 1974. Cytochrome c binding to enzymes and membranes. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 346:261–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rouslin, W., and Millard, R. W. 1980. Canine myocardial ischemia: Defect in mitochondrial electron transfer complex I. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 12:639–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schwartz, A., Wood, J. M., Allen, J. C, Bornet, E. P., Entman, M. L., Goldstein, M. A., Sordahl, L. A., and Suzuki, M. 1973. Biochemical and morphologic correlates of cardiac ischemia. Am. J. Cardiol. 32:46–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Skulachev, V. P. 1974. [Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation and some principles of bioenergetics.] Adv. Mod. Biol. 77:125–154.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith, L., Davies, H. C., and Nava, M. E. 1979. Studies of the kinetics of oxidation of cytochrome c by cytochrome c oxidase: Comparison of spectrophotometric and Polarographic assays. Biochemistry 18:3140–3146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith, L., Davies, H. C, and Nava, M. E. 1980. Effect of adenosine 5’-triphosphate and adenosine 5’-diphosphate on the oxidation of cytochrome c by cytochrome c oxidase. Biochemistry 19:1613–1617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith, A. F., Wong, P. C.-P., and Oliver, M. F. 1977. Release of mitochondrial enzymes in acute myocardial infarction. J. Mol. Med. 2:265–269.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sobel, B. E., Corr, P. B., Robison, A. K., Goldstein, R. A., Witkowski, F. X., and Klein, M. S. 1978. Accumulation of lysophosphoglycerides with arrhythmogenic properties in ischemic myocardium. J. Clin. Invest. 62:546–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Toleikis, A., Džeja, P., Praškevicius, A., and Jasaitis, A. 1979. Mitochondrial functions in ischemic myocardium. I. Proton electrochemical gradient, inner membrane permeability, calcium transport and oxidative phosphorylation in isolated mitochondria. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 11:57–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Toleikis, A., Trumpickas, A., Dagys, A., and Džeja, P., 1979. Studies on mitochondrial function and myocardial lipid changes in ischemic rabbit heart. In: Abstracts, 8th International Colloquium on Bioenergetics and Mitochondria. Smolenice Castle, Czechoslovakia, p. 78.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vasdev, S. C., Kako, K. J., and Biro, G. P. 1979. Phospholipid composition of cardiac mitochondria and lysosomes in experimental myocardial ischemia in the dog. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 11:1195–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Waldenström, A. P., Hjalmarson, A. C, Jodal, M., and Waldenström, J. 1977. Significance of enzyme release from ischemic isolated rat heart. Acta Med. Scand. 201:525–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wojtczak, L. 1974. Permeability and other properties of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Rev. Roum. Physiol. 11:173–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wojtczak, L., and Zaluska, H. 1969. On the impermeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane to cytochrome c. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 193:64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wojtczak, L., Zaluska, H., Wroniszewska, A., and Wojtczak, A. B. 1972. Assay for the intactiness of the outer membrane in isolated mitochondria. Acta Biochim. Pol. 19:227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Toleikis
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of MetabolismInstitute for Cardiovascular ResearchKaunas, Lithuanian SSRUSSR

Personalised recommendations