Toxinogenesis of Fusarium Graminearum: Clonal Variability and Influence of Substrate and Agro-Chemicals

  • Galina D. Sokolova


Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is one of the main causal organisms associated with the Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals in many countries of the world with warm and relatively moist climatic conditions. Several epiphytotics of FHB of winter wheat have been recorded in the south areas of the European part of Russia at the end of 80th and at the beginning of 90th years (Ivaschenko et al., 1997; Ivaschenko and Nazarovskaya, 1998; Kireenkova and Pavlova, 1996; Monastirnaya et al., 1990; Pavlova and Ianalkova, 1995). F. graminearum from south regions of Russia produces mainly deoxynivalenol (DON) and monoacetates — 15-AcDON and 3-AcDON (AcDON) (Leonov et al., 1988, 1990) and also sometimes zearalenone and other metabolites (Leonov et al., 1994; L’vova et al., 1994, 1997). The main sources of infection are ascospores of teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Ivaschenko and Nazarovskaya, 1998; Pavlova and Izmalkova, 1995; Parry et al., 1995) and sometimes conidia of anamorph F.graminearum (Burgess et al., 1987) which are of main importance in following reinfection processes in favourable weather conditions (Pavlova and Izmalkova, 1995; Sidorov et al., 1998). Spores distribute with the aerial way, germinate on the heads of cereals and infect the grain. The totality of spore isolates (clones) forms a phytopathogen population.


Winter Wheat Fusarium Head Blight Plant Pathol Toxin Production Fusarium Head Blight Resistance 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Galina D. Sokolova
    • 1
  1. 1.All-Russian Research Institute of PhytopathologyMoscow RegionRussia

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