Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Man

  • Arthur D. Bloom
Part of the Advances in Human Genetics book series (AHUG, volume 3)


It has become increasingly clear in recent years that a multiplicity of chemical and physical agents to which man is exposed are capable of damaging his chromosomes. The effects of many such agents on human somatic cell chromosomes have now been well documented, albeit not without occasional controversy over the interpretation and implications of the data. While the biological and clinical significance of chromosomal aberrations are not as yet well understood, recent epidemiological evidence, from mutagen-exposed human populations, and recent experiments on viral-induced transformation of chromosomally abnormal cells suggest an association between chromosome aberrations and oncogenesis.


Chromosomal Aberration Chromosome Aberration Measle Virus North Holland Publishing Chromosome Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aaronson, S. A., and G. J. Todaro, SV40 T antigen induction and transformation in human fibroblast cell strains, Virology 36: 254 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abdullah, S., and O. J. Miller, Effect of drugs on nucleic acid synthesis and cell division in vitro, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 29: 829 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahnström, H., and A. T. Natarajan, Mechanism of chromosome breakage—a new theory, Hereditas 54: 379 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albert, R. E., A. R. Omran, E. W. Brauer, D. C. Dove, N. C. Cohen, H. Schmidt, R. Baumring, S. Morrill, R. Schultz, and R. L. Baer, Follow-up study of patients treated by X-ray for Tinea Capitis, Amer. J. Pub. Health 56: 2114 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alexander, G. J., G. M. Gold, B. E. Miles, and R. B. Alexander, Lysergic acid diethylamide intake in pregnancy: fetal damage in rats, J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 173: 48 (1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexander, G. J., B. E. Miles, G. M. Gold, and R. B. Alexander, Injection early in pregnancy produces abnormalities in offspring of rats, Science 157: 459 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allison, A. C., and G. R. Paton, Chromosome damage in human diploid cells following activation of lysosomal enzymes, Nature 207: 1170 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alvarez, H. Diagnosis of hydatidiform mole by transabdominal placental biopsy, Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 95: 538 (1966).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arends, T., G. Brewer, N. Chagnon, M. L. Gallango, H. Gershowitz, M. Layrisse, J. V. Neel, D. Shreffler, R. E. Tashian, and L. Weitkamp, Intratribal genetic differentiation among the Yanomama Indians of Southern Venezuela, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 57: 1252 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Assemany, S. R., R. L. Neu, and L. I. Gardner, Deformities in a child whose mother took LSD, Lancet 1: 1290 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Auerbach, R., and J. Rugowski, Lysergic acid diethylamide: effect on embryos, Science 157: 1325 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aula, P. Chromosome breakage in leukocytes of chickenpox patients, Hereditas 49: 451 (1963).Google Scholar
  13. Aula, P., Virus associated chromosome breakage: a cytogenetic study of chickenpox, measles, and mumps patients out of cell cultures infected with measles virus, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennicae Series A IV 89: 1 (1965).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aula, P. and W. W. Nichols, The cytogenetic effects of Mycoplasma in human leukocyte cultures, J. Cellular Physiol. 70: 281 (1967).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aula, P., and W. W. Nichols, Lysosomes and virus induced chromosome breakage, Exp. Cell Res. 51: 595 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Auxier, J. A., J. S. Cheka, F. F. Haywood, T. D. Jones, J. H. Thorngate, Free-field radiation-dose distributions from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, Health Physics 12: 425 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Awa, A., and A. D. Bloom, Cytogenetics at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission: report of a symposium, Jap. J. Human Genet. 12: 69 (1967).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Awa, A. A., A. D. Bloom, M. C. Yoshida, S. Neriishi, and P. G. Archer, Cyto- genetic study of the offspring of atom-bomb survivors, Nature 218: 367 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18a.
    Awa, A. A., S. Neriishi, T. Sofuni, T. Matsui, H. Okada, and H. B. Hamilton, On the frequency of aberrant karyotypes in Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations, Abstract, Japanese Society of Human Genetics, Tokyo (1971).Google Scholar
  20. 18b.
    Awa, A. A., S. Neriishi, T. Honda, M. C. Yoshida, T. Sofuni, and T. Matsui, Dose-chromosome aberration relation in cultured blood cells of A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A preliminary report, Abstract, 4th International Congress of Radiation Research, Evian, France (1970).Google Scholar
  21. 19.
    Bachman, R. Chromatid breaks, N. Eng. J. Med. 277: 492 (1967).Google Scholar
  22. 19a.
    Bacq, Z. M., and P. Alexander, in “Fundamentals of Radiobiology,” Pergamon Press, New York (1961), p. 263.Google Scholar
  23. 20.
    Bauer, K. H., Mutationstheorie der Geschwulst-Entstehung; Übergang von Körperzellen in Geschwulstzellen durch Gen-Änderung, Berlin: Springer Verlag (1928).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 21.
    Bell, S., and S. Wolff, Studies on the mechanism of the effect of fluoro-deoxyuridine on chromosomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 51: 195 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 22.
    Bender, L., and D. V. S. Sankar, Chromosome damage not found in leukocytes of children treated with LSD-25, Science 159: 749 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 23.
    Bender, M. A., Chromosome breakage in vitro, in “Mammalian Cytogenetics and Related Problems in Radiobiology,” (C. Pavan, C. Chagas, O. Frota-Pessoa, and L. R. Caldas, eds.), The Macmillan Company, New York (1964), p. 87.Google Scholar
  27. 24.
    Bender, M. A., Chromosome aberrations in irradiated human subjects, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 114: 249 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 25.
    Bender, M. A., and M. A. Barcinski, Kinetics of two-break aberration production by X-rays in human leukocytes, Cytogenetics 8: 241 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 26.
    Bender, M. A., and P. C. Gooch, Somatic chromosome aberrations in normal and irradiated humans, Rad. Res. 14: 451 (1961).Google Scholar
  30. 27.
    Bender, M. A., and P. C. Gooch, Persistent chromosome aberrations in irradiated human subjects, Rad. Res. 16: 44 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 28.
    Bender, M. A., and P. C. Gooch, Types and rates of X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in human blood, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 48: 522 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 29.
    Bender, M. A., and P. C. Gooch, Persistent chromosome aberrations in irradiated human subjects. II. Three and one-half year investigation, Rad. Res. 18: 389 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 30.
    Bender, M. A., and P. C. Gooch, Somatic chromosome aberrations induced by human whole-body irradiation: the “recuplex” criticality accident, Rad. Res. 29: 568 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 31.
    Bender, M. A., P. C. Gooch, and D. M. Prescott, Aberrations induced in human leukocyte chromosomes by 3H-labeled nucleosides, Cytogenetics 1: 65 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 32.
    Bender, M. A., and M. A. Kastenbaum, Statistical analysis of the normal human karyotype, Amer. J. Human Genet. 21: 322 (1969).Google Scholar
  36. 33.
    Bender, M. A., and D. M. Prescott, DNA synthesis and mitosis in cultures of human peripheral leukocytes, Exp. Cell Res. 27: 221 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 34.
    Bender, M. A., and S. Wolff, X-ray induced chromosome aberrations and reproductive death in mammalian cells, Amer. Nat. 95: 39 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 35.
    Benjamin, T. L., Virus specific RNA in cells productively infected or transformed by polyoma virus, J. Mol. Biol. 16: 359 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 36.
    Berger, R., Chromosomes et leucémies humaines. La notion d’évolution clonale, Ann. Genet. 8: 70 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 37.
    Bergsma, D. (ed.), Chicago Conference: Standardization in Human Cytogenetics, spons. by The National Foundation-March of Dimes, Birth Defects: Original Article Series 2: 1 (1966).Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    Berwald, Y., and L. Sachs, In vitro cell transformation with chemical carcinogens, Nature 200: 1182 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 39.
    Bizzozero, O. J., K. G. Johnson, and A. Ciocco, Radiation-related leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946–1964, New Engl. J. Med. 274: 1095 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 40.
    Black, P. H., Transformation of mouse cell line 3T3 by SV40: dose response relationship and correlation with SV40 tumor antigen production, Virology 28: 760 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 41.
    Black, P. H., The oncogenic DNA viruses: a review of in vitro transformation studies, Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 22: 391 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 42.
    Black, P. H., W. P. Rowe, and H. L. Cooper, An analysis of SV40 induced transformation of hamster kidney tissue in vitro. II. Studies of the clones derived from a continuous line of transformed cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 50: 847 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 43.
    Bloom, A. D., Human chromosomes and diagnostic X-rays, Internal Medicine Digest 1: 43 (1966).Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Bloom, A. D., Cytogenetic effects of low dose, internal and external radiations, in “Medical Radionuclides: Radiation Dose and Effects” (R. J. Cloutier, C. L. Edwards, and W. S. Snyder, eds.), U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge (1970), p. 425.Google Scholar
  48. 45.
    Bloom, A. D., Discussion of genetic and cytogenetic effects of radiation, in “Effects of Radiation,” (R. M. Fry, D. Grahn, M. L. Griem, and J. Rust, eds.), Taylor and Francis, Ltd., London (1970), p. 165.Google Scholar
  49. 46.
    Bloom, A. D., Chromosome breakage, in “Perspectives in Cytogenetics-The 1970 Colorado Springs Symposium,” (S. Wright and P. Gerald, eds.), U.S. Government Printing Office (in press).Google Scholar
  50. 47.
    Bloom, A. D., P. G. Archer, and A. A. Awa, Variation in the human chromosome number, Nature 216: 487 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 48.
    Bloom, A. D., A. A. Awa, S. Neriishi, T. Honda, and P. G. Archer, Chromosome aberrations in leukocytes of older survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Lancet 2: 802 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 49.
    Bloom, A. D., K. W. Choi, and B. J. Lamb, Immunoglobulin production by human lymphocytoid lines and clones: absence of genic exclusion, Science 172: 382 (1971).Google Scholar
  53. 50.
    Bloom, A. D., and S. Iida, Two-day leukocyte cultures for human chromosome studies, Jap. J. Hum. Genet. 12: 38 (1967).Google Scholar
  54. 51.
    Bloom, A. D., Y. Nakagome, A. A. Awa, and S. Neriishi, Chromosome aberrations and malignant disease among A-bomb survivors, Amer. J. Pub. Health 60: 641 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 52.
    Bloom, A. D., J. V. Neel, K. W. Choi, S. Iida, and N. Chagnon, Chromosome aberrations among the Yanomama Indians, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S., 66: 920 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 53.
    Bloom, A. D., S. Neriishi, and P. G. Archer, Cytogenetics of the in utero exposed of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Lancet 2: 10 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 54.
    Bloom, A. D., S. Neriishi, N. Kamada, T. Iseki, and R. J. Keehn, Cytogenetic investigation of survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Lancet 2: 672 (1966).Google Scholar
  58. 55.
    Bloom, A. D., S. Neriishi, N. Kamada, and T. Iseki, Leukocyte chromosome studies of adult and in utero exposed survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics,” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 136.Google Scholar
  59. 56.
    Bloom, A. D., and J. H. Tijio, In vivo effects of diagnostic X-irradiation on human chromosomes, New Engl. J. Med. 270: 1341 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 57.
    Bloom, A. D., M. Tsuchioka, and T. Wajima, Lactic dehydrogenase and metabolism of human leukocytes in vitro, Science 156: 979 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 58.
    Bloom, G. E., S. Warner, P. S. Gerald, and L. K. Diamond, Chromosome abnormalities in constitutional aplastic anemia, New Engl. J. Med. 274: 8 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 59.
    Boveri, T., “The origin of malignant tumors,” translated by M. Boveri, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore (1929).Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    Boyd, J. T., W. M. Court Brown, J. Vennart, and G. E. Woodcock, Chromosome studies on women formerly employed as luminous-dial painters, Brit. Med. J. 1: 377 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 61.
    Brewen, J. G., X-ray induced chromosome aberrations in the corneal epithelium of the Chinese hamster, Science 138: 820 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 62.
    Brewen, J. G., The induction of chromatid lesions by cytosine arabinoside in postDNA-synthetic human leukocytes, Cytogenetics 4: 28 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 63.
    Brewen, J. G., and N. T. Christie, Studies on the induction of chromosomal aberrations in human leukocytes by cytosine arabinoside, Exp. Cell Res. 46: 276 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 64.
    Brinkley, B. R., and M. W. Shaw, Ultrastructural aspects of chromosome damage, in “Genetic Concepts and Neoplasia,” Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore (1970), pp. 313–345.Google Scholar
  68. 65.
    Broder, S. W., P. R. Glade, and K. Hirschhorn, Establishment of long-term lines from small aliquots of normal human lymphocytes, Blood 35: 539 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 66.
    Broder, S. W., P. R. Glade, H. L. Hodes, and K. Hirschhorn, Establishment of lymphoid cell lines from peripheral blood of normal individuals with phytohemagglutinin, Fed. Proc. 29: 369 abs (1970).Google Scholar
  70. 67.
    Browning, L. S., The mutational spectrum produced in Drosophila by N-methylN’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, Mutat. Res. 8: 157 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 68.
    Buckton, K. E., W. M. Cort Brown, and P. G. Smith, Lymphocyte survival in men treated with X-rays for ankylosing spondylitis, Nature 214: 470 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 69.
    Buckton, K. E., G. W. Dolphin, and A. S. McLean, Studies of chromosome aberrations in cultures of peripheral blood from men employed at UKAEA establishments, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 174.Google Scholar
  73. 70.
    Buckton, K. E., P. A. Jacobs, W. M. Court Brown, and R. Doll, A study of the chromosome damage persisting after X-ray therapy for ankylosing spondylitis, Lancet 2: 676 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 71.
    Buckton, K. E., A. O. Langlands, P. G. Smith, and J. McLelland, Chromosome aberrations following partial-and whole-body X-irradiation in man Dose-response relationships, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 122.Google Scholar
  75. 72.
    Buckton, K. E., A. O. Langlands, and G. E. Woodcock, Cytogenetic changes following thorotrast administration, Int. J. Radial. Biol. 12: 565 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 73.
    Buckton, K. E., and M. C. Pike, Chromosome investigations on lymphocytes from irradiated patients: effect of time in culture, Nature 202: 714 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 74.
    Buckton, K. E., and M. C. Pike, Time in culture-an important variable in studying in vivo radiation-induced chromosome damage in man, Int. J. Rad. Biol. 8: 439 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 75.
    Buckton, K. E., P. G. Smith, and W. M. Court Brown, The estimation of lymphocyte lifespan from studies on males treated with X-rays for ankylosing spondylitis, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 106.Google Scholar
  79. 76.
    Burdette, W. J., and J. S. Yoon, Mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and tumors in insects treated with oncogenic virus, Science 155: 340 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 77.
    Burnett, F. M., Measles as an index of immunological tolerance, Lancet 2: 610 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 78.
    Cantell, K., E. Saksela, and P. Aula, Virological studies on chromosome damage of HeLa cells induced by myxoviruses, Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fennicae 44: 255 (1966).Google Scholar
  82. 79.
    Cantolino, S. J., R. D. Schmickel, M. Ball, and C. F. Cisar, Persistent chromosomal aberrations following radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis, New Engl. J. Med. 275: 739 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 80.
    Carakushansky, G., R. L. Neu, and L. I. Gardner, Lysergide and cannabis as possible teratogens in man, Lancet 1: 150 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 81.
    Carr, D. H., Chromosome anomalies as a cause of spontaneous abortion, Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 97: 283 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 82.
    Cassingena, R., and P. Tournier, Mise en evidence d’un “répresseur” spécifique dans des cellules d’espèces différentes transformées par le virus SV40, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 267: 2251 (1968).Google Scholar
  86. 83.
    Cassingena, R., P. Tournier, S. Estrade, and M. Bourali, Blocage de l’action du “répresseur” du virus SV40 par un facteur constitutif des cellules permissives pour ce virus, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 269: 261 (1969).Google Scholar
  87. 84.
    Cassingena, R. P. Tournier, E. May, S. Estrade, and M. Bourali, Synthèse du “répresseur” du virus SV40 dans l’infection productive et abortive, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 268: 2834 (1969).Google Scholar
  88. 84a.
    Castleman, K. R., and A. J. Welch, Match recognition in chromosome band structure, Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 4: 256 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 85.
    Catcheside, D. G., D. E. Lea, and J. M. Thoday, Types of chromosome structural changes induced by the irradiation of Tradescantia microspores, J. Genet. 47: 113 (1946).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 86.
    Choi, K. W., and A. D. Bloom, Cloning human lymphocytes in vitro, Nature 227: 171 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 87.
    Choi, K. W., and A. D. Bloom, Biochemically marked lymphocytoid lines: establishment of Lesch-Nyhan cells, Science 170: 89 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 88.
    Chu, E. H. Y., and N. H. Giles, Human chromosome complements in normal somatic cells in culture, Amer. J. Human Genet. 11: 63 (1959).Google Scholar
  93. 89.
    Chu, E. H. Y., N. H. Giles, and K. Passano, Types and frequencies of human chromosome aberrations induced by X-rays, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 47: 830 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 90.
    Cleaver, J. E., Defective repair replication of DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum, Nature 218: 652 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 91.
    Cohen, M. M., and A. D. Bloom, Monitoring for chromosomal abnormality in man, in “Monitoring, Birth Defects, and Environment: The Problem of Surveillance” (I. Porter and E. B. Hook, eds.), Academic Press, New York (1971), p. 249.Google Scholar
  96. 92.
    Cohen, M. M., and R. Hirschhorn, Lysosomal and non-lysosomal factors in chemically induced chromosome breakage, Exp. Cell Res. 64: 209 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 93.
    Cohen, M. M., R. Hirschhorn, and A. I. Freeman, Mechanisms of chemically induced chromosome abnormalities, in “Genetic Concepts and Neoplasia,” A collection of papers presented at the 23rd Annual Symposium on Fundamental Cancer Research, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore (1970), p. 228.Google Scholar
  98. 94.
    Cohen, M., K. Hirschhorn, and W. Frosch, In vivo and in vitro chromosome damage induced by LSD-25, New Engl. J. Med. 227: 1043 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 95.
    Cohen, M. M., K. Hirschhorn, and W. A. Frosch, Cytogenetic effect of tranquilizing drugs in vivo and in vitro, JAMA 207: 2425 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 96.
    Cohen, M. M., K. Hirschhorn, S. Verbo, W. A. Frosch, and M. M. Groeschel, The effect of LSD-25 on the chromosomes of children exposed in utero, Pediatric Res. 2: 486 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 97.
    Cohen, M. M., M. J. Marinello, N. Back, Chromosomal damage in human leukocytes induced by lysergic acid diethylamide, Science 155: 1417 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 98.
    Cohen, M. M., and A. B. Mukherjee, Meiotic chromosome damage induced by LSD-25, Nature 219: 1072 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 99.
    Conen, P. E., A. G. Bell, and N. Aspin, Chromosomal aberration in infant following use of diagnostic X-rays, Pediatrics 31: 72 (1963).Google Scholar
  104. 100.
    Court Brown, W. M., “Human Population Cytogenetics,” North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 3.Google Scholar
  105. 101.
    Court Brown, W. M., K. E. Buckton, P. A. Jacobs, and I. M. Tough, “Chromosome Studies on Adults,” Eugenic Laboratory Memoirs Series XLII, Cambridge Univ. Press, London (1966), p. 91.Google Scholar
  106. 102.
    Court Brown, W. M., K. E. Buckton, A. O. Langlands, and G. E. Woodcock, The identification of lymphocyte clones, with chromosome structural aberrations, in irradiated men and women, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 13: 155 (1967).Google Scholar
  107. 103.
    Court Brown, W. M., K. E. Buckton, and A. S. McLean, Quantitative studies of chromosome aberrations in man following acute and chronic exposure to X-rays and gamma rays, Lancet 1: 1239 (1965).Google Scholar
  108. 104.
    Court Brown, W. M., and R. Doll, Mortality from cancer and other causes after radiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis, Brit. Med. J. 2: 1327 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 105.
    Court Brown, W. M., P. A. Jacobs, and I. M. Tough, Some types of information obtainable from chromosome studies on defined population groups, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 115.Google Scholar
  110. 106.
    Crow, J. F., Human population monitoring, in “Chemical Mutagens-Principles and Methods for Their Detection” (A. Hollaender, ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1971), p. 591.Google Scholar
  111. 107.
    Dameshek, W., Alpha-methyldopa red cell antibody: cross-reaction or forbidden clones? New Engl. J. Med. 276: 1382 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 107a.
    De Duve, C., and H. Beaufay, Tissue fractionation studies 10. Influence of ischaemia on the state of some bound enzymes in the rat liver, Biochem. J. 73: 610 (1959).Google Scholar
  113. 108.
    Defendi, V., and F. Jensen, Oncogenicity by DNA tumor viruses: enhancement after ultraviolet and cobalt-60 radiation, Science 157: 703 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 109.
    Dekaban, A., Persisting clone of cells with abnormal chromosome in a woman previously irradiated, J. Nuc. Med. 6: 740 (1965).Google Scholar
  115. 110.
    Dishotsky, N. I., W. D. Loughman, R. E. Mogar, and W. R. Lipscomb, LSD and genetic damage, Science 172: 431 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 110a.
    Doida, Y., T. Sugahara, and M. Horikawa, Studies on some radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in man, Rad. Res. 26: 69 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 111.
    Dorrance, D., O. Janiger, and R. L. Teplitz, In vivo effects of illicit hallucinogens on human lymphocyte chromosomes, JAMA 212: 1488 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 112.
    Dulbecco, R., Transformation of cells in vitro by viruses, Science 142: 932 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 113.
    Dulbecco, R., Viruses in carcinogenesis, Ann. Intern. Med. 70: 1019 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 114.
    Edwards, J. H., and R. B. Young, Chromosome analysis from small volumes of blood, Lancet 2: 48 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 115.
    Egozcue, J., S. Irwin, and C. A. Maruffo, Chromosomal damage in LSD users, DAMA 204: 214 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 116.
    Eller, J. L., and J. M. Morton, Bizarre deformities in offspring of user of lysergic acid diethylamide, New Engl. J. Med. 283: 395 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 117.
    Epstein, M. A., B. G. Achong, and Y. M. Barr, Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt’s lymphoma, Lancet 1: 702 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 117a.
    Eridani, S., R. Valentin, A. Giangan, and G. Ponti, Cell culture reactivity of human lymphocytes to pokeweed mitogen in comparison to PHA. Int. A. Aller. 35: 270 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 118.
    Evans, H. J., Chromosome aberrations induced by ionizing radiations, Inter. Rev. Cytol. 13: 221 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 119.
    Evans, H. J., Simple microtechnique for obtaining human chromosome preparations with some comments on DNA replication in sex chromosomes of the goat, cow, and pig, Exp. Cell Res. 38: 511 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 120.
    Evans, H. J., Dose-response relations from in vitro studies, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 20.Google Scholar
  128. 121.
    Evans, H. J., and D. Scott, Influence of DNA synthesis on the production of chromatid aberrations by X-rays and maleic hydrazide in Vicia faba, Genetics 49: 17 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 122.
    Evans, H. J., and D. Scott, The induction of chromosomal aberrations by nitrogen mustard and its dependence on DNA synthesis, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) Ser. B 173: 491 (1969).Google Scholar
  130. 123.
    Fialkow, P. J. Immunologic oncogenesis, Blood 30: 388 (1967).Google Scholar
  131. 124.
    Fischer, P., E. Golob, E. Kunze-Muehl, and T. Muellner, Chromosome aberrations in persons with thorium dioxide burdens, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 194.Google Scholar
  132. 125.
    Fischer, P., E. Golob, E. Kunze-Müehl, A. Ben Haim, R. A. Dudley, T. Milliner, R. M. Parr, and H. Vetter, Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood cells in man following chronic irradiation from internal deposits of thorotrast, Rad. Res. 29: 505 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 126.
    Fischer, P. Golob, and T. Kunze-Mullner, Chromosome aberrations in thorium dioxide patients, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 145: 759 (1967).Google Scholar
  134. 127.
    Fitzgerald, P. H., The immunological role and long life-span of small lymphocytes, J. Theoret. Biol. 6: 13 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 128.
    Fitzgerald, P. H., The life-span and role of the small lymphocyte, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 14.Google Scholar
  136. 129.
    Fitzgerald, P. H., and J. R. E. Dobson, Radiomimetic properties of LSD, New Engl. J. Med. 278: 1404 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 130.
    Fogh, J., and H. Fogh, Chromosome changes in PPLO-infected FL human amnion cells, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 119: 233 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 131.
    Foley, G. E., H. Lazarus, S. Farber, B. Uzman, B. Boone, and R. McCarthy, Continuous culture of human lymphoblasts from peripheral blood of a child with acute leukemia, Cancer 18: 522 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 132.
    Fraccaro, M., A. Mannini, L. Tiepolo, and C. Lara, High frequency of spontaneous recurrent chromosome breakage in an untreated human tumor, Mut. Res. 2: 559 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 133.
    Francis, T., S. Jablon, and F. E. Moore, Report of ad hoc committee for appraisal of ABCC program, ABCC Technical Report Series, No. 33–59 (1959).Google Scholar
  141. 134.
    Freed, J. J., and S. A. Schatz, Chromosome aberration in cultured cells deprived of essential amino acids, Exp. Cell Res. 55: 393 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 135.
    Fried, M., Cell-transforming ability of a temperature sensitive mutant of polyoma virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 53: 486 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 136.
    Gallus, G., and P. W. Neurath, Improved computer chromosome analysis incorporating preprocessing and boundary analysis, Phys. Med. Biol. 15: 435 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 137.
    Geber, W. F., Congenital malformations induced by mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide and bromolysergic acid diethylamide in the hamster, Science 158: 265 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 138.
    Genest, C., Ring chromosome and partial translocation in the same cell, Lancet 1: 1426 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 139.
    Gerber, P., J. Whang-Peng, and J. H. Monroe, Transformation and chromosome changes induced by Epstein-Barr virus in normal human leukocyte cultures, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 63: 740 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 140.
    German, J., and R. Archibald, Chromosome breakage in a rare and probably genetically determined syndrome of man, Science 148: 506 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 141.
    German, J. and L. Pugliatti Crippa, Chromosome breakage in diploid cell lines from Bloom’s syndrome and Fanconi’s anemia, Ann. Genet. 9: 143 (1966).Google Scholar
  149. 142.
    Gershon, D., P. Hausen, L. Sachs, and E. Winocour, On the mechanism of polyoma virus-induced synthesis of cellular DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 54: 1584 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 143.
    Gichner, T., A. Michaelis, and R. Rieger, Radiomimetic effects of 1-methyl-3-nitro1-nitrosoguanidine in Vicia faba, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 11: 120 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 144.
    Gilmour, D. G., A. D. Bloom, K. P. Lele, E. S. Robbins, and C. Maximilian, Chromosomal aberrations in users of psychoactive drugs, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 24: 268 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 145.
    Glade, P. R., J. A. Kasel, H. L. Moses, J. Whang-Peng, P. F. Hoffman, J. K. Kammermeyer, and L. N. Chessin, Infectious mononucleosis: continuous suspension culture of peripheral blood leukocytes, Nature 217: 564 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 146.
    Goh, K., Smaller G chromosome in irradiated man, Lancet 1: 659 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 147.
    Goh, K., Total-body irradiation and human chromosomes: cytogenetic studies of the peripheral blood and bone marrow leukocytes seven years after total-body irradiation, Rad. Res. 35: 155 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 148.
    Goh, K. O., and H. Sumner, Breaks in normal human chromosomes: are they induced by a transferrable substance in the plasma of persons exposed to total-body irradiation? Rad. Res. 35: 171 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 149.
    Gooch, P. C., and C. L. Fischer, High frequency of a specific chromosome abnormality in leukocytes of a normal female, Cytogenetics 8: 1 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 150.
    Grace, D., E. A. Carlson, and P. Goodman, Drosophila melanogaster treated with LSD: absence of mutation and chromosome breakage, Science 161: 694 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 151.
    Green, M., Biosynthetic modifications induced by DNA animal viruses, Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 20: 189 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 152.
    Green, M., Oncogenic viruses, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 39: 701 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 153.
    Green, M., K. Fujinaga, and M. Pina, Use of DNA-DNA and DNA-RNA hybridization on nitrocellulose membranes in virus research, in “Fundamental Techniques in Virology” (K. Habel and N. Salzman, eds.), Academic Press, New York (1969), p. 467.Google Scholar
  161. 154.
    Gropp, A., A. Jussen, and K. Ofteringer, Multiple congenital anomalies associated with a partially ring-shaped chromosome probably derived from chromosome no. 18 in man, Nature 202: 829 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 155.
    Grouchy, J. de, Chromosome 17–18 en anneau et malformations congénitales chez une fille, Ann. Genet. 7: 17 (1964).Google Scholar
  163. 156.
    Grouchy, J. de, A. Herrault, and J. Cohen-Solal, Une observation de chromosome 18 en anneau, Ann. Genet. 11: 33 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 157.
    Habel, K., Resistance of polyoma virus immune animals to transplanted polyoma tumors, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 106: 722 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 158.
    Hampar, B., and S. A. Ellison, Chromosomal aberrations induced by an animal virus, Nature 192: 145 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 159.
    Harnden, D. G., A human skin culture technique used for cytological examinations, Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 41: 31 (1960).Google Scholar
  167. 160.
    Harnden, D. G., Cytogenetic studies on patients with virus infections and subjects vaccinated against yellow fever, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 16: 204 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 161.
    Hauschka, T. S., and A. Levan, Cytologic and functional characterization of single cell clones isolated from the Krebs-2 and Ehrlich Ascites tumors, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. U.S. 21: 77 (1958).Google Scholar
  169. 162.
    Hayflick, L., The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains, Exp. Cell Res. 37: 614 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 163.
    Hecht, F., R. K. Beals, M. H. Lees, H. Jolly, P. Roberts, Lysergic-acid-diethylamide and cannabis as possible teratogens in man, Lancet 2: 1087 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 164.
    Hecht, F., R. D. Kiler, D. A. Rigas, G. S. Dahnke, M. P. Case, V. Tisdale, and R. W. Miller, Leukemia and lymphocytes in ataxia telangiectasia, Lancet 2: 1193 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 165.
    Heddle, J. A., H. J. Evans, and D. Scott, Sampling time and the complexity of the human leukocyte culture system, in “Human Radiation cytogenetics” (H. J. EvansGoogle Scholar
  173. W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 6.Google Scholar
  174. 165a.
    Heneen, W. K., and W. W. Nichols, Persistence of nucleoli in short and longterm cultures and in direct bone marrow preparations in mammalian materials, J. Cell Biot. 31: 543 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 166.
    Hirschhorn, K., and N. Bloch-Shtacher, Transformation of genetically abnormal cells, in “Genetic Concepts and Neoplasia,” Proc. 23rd Ann. Symposium Fundamental Concepts of Cancer, Houston (1969), p. 191.Google Scholar
  176. 167.
    Hirschhorn, K., and M. Cohen, Induced chromosomal aberrations with special reference to man, in “Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics” (K. Benirschke, ed.), Springer; New York (1969), p. 4a.Google Scholar
  177. 168.
    Hollowell, J. G., and L. G. Littlefield, Chromosome aberrations induced by plasma from irradiated patients, J. S. C. Med. Assoc. 63: 437 (1967).Google Scholar
  178. 169.
    Honda, T., A. D. Bloom, and S. Neriishi, Chromosome aberrations among A-bomb survivors: relation to radiation dose and culture time, Proc. XII Intl. Cong. Genet. Tokyo, 1968 (1968), p. 207.Google Scholar
  179. 170.
    Honda, T., N. Kamada, and A. D. Bloom, Chromosome aberrations and culture time, Cytogenetics 8: 117 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. a. Howard, P. A. D. Bloom, and R. S. Krooth, Chromosomal aberrations induced by N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in mammalian cells, In Vitro, in press.Google Scholar
  181. 171.
    Hsu, L. Y., L. Strauss, and K. Hirschhorn, Chromosome abnormality in offspring of LSD user, JAMA 211: 987 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 172.
    Hsu, T. C., and G. K. Manna, High frequency of chromatid breaks in two in vitro cell populations, Amer. Nat. 93: 207 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 173.
    Hsu, T. C., and C. E. Somers, Effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on mammalian chromosomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 47: 396 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 174.
    Hultén, M., J. Lindsten, L. Lidberg, and H. Ekelund, Studies on mitotic and meioticGoogle Scholar
  185. chromosomes in subjects exposed to LSD, Ann. Genet. 11: 201 (1968).Google Scholar
  186. a. “Human Population Cytogenetics,” Pfizer Medical Monographs 5 (P. A. JacobsGoogle Scholar
  187. W. H. Price, and F. Law, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore (1969).Google Scholar
  188. 175.
    Humphrey, R. M., and B. R. Brinkley, Ultrastructural studies of radiation-induced chromosome damage, J. Cell Biol. 42: 745 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 176.
    Hungerford, D. A., Leukocytes cultured from small inocula of whole blood and the preparation of metaphase chromosomes by treatment with hypotonic KC1, Stain Technol. 40: 333 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 177.
    Hungerford, D. A., K. M. Taylor, C. Shagass, G. U. LaBadie, G. B. Balaban, and G. R. Paton, Cytogenetic effects of LSD-25 therapy in man, JAMA 206: 2287 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 178.
    Imamura, T., and G. E. Moore, Ability of human hematopoietic cell lines to form colonies in soft agar, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128: 1179 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 179.
    Irwin, S., and J. Egozcue, Chromosomal abnormalities in leukocytes from LSD-25 users, Science 157: 313 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 180.
    Ishihara, T., and T. Kumatori, Chromosome aberrations in human leukocytes irradiated in vivo and in vitro, Acta Haem. Jap. 28: 291 (1965).Google Scholar
  194. 181.
    Ishihara, T., and T. Kumatori, Chromosome studies on Japanese exposed to radiation resulting from nuclear bomb explosions, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 144.Google Scholar
  195. 182.
    Jablon, S., and H. Kato, Childhood cancer in relation to prenatal exposure to A-bomb radiation, Lancet 2: 1000 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 183.
    Jablon, S., and H. Kato, Sex ratio in offspring of survivors exposed prenatally to the atomic bombs, ABCC Technical Report Series, No. 24–70 (1971).Google Scholar
  197. 184.
    Jablon, S., K. Tachikawa, J. L. Belsky, and A. Steer, Cancer in Japanese exposed as children to atomic bombs, Lancet 1: 927 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 185.
    Jacobs, P. A., M. Brunton, and W. M. Court Brown, Change of human chromosome count distributions with age: evidence for a sex difference, Nature 197: 1080 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 186.
    Jacobs, P. A., M. Brunton, and W. M. Court Brown, Cytogenetic studies in leucocytes on the general population: subjects of ages 65 years and more, Ann. Hum. Genet. 27: 353 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 187.
    Jacobs, P. A., and W. M. Court Brown, Distribution of human chromosome counts in relation to age, Nature 191: 1178 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 188.
    Jagiello, G., and P. E. Polani, Mouse germ cells and LSD-25, Cytogenetics 8: 136 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 189.
    Jarvik, L. F., and T. Kato, Is lysergic acid a teratogen, Lancet 1: 250 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 190.
    Jarvik, L. F., and T. Kato, Chromosome examinations in aged twins, Amer. J. Human Genet. 22: 562 (1970).Google Scholar
  204. 191.
    Jarvik, L. F., T. Kato, B. Saunders, and E. Moralishvili, LSD and human chromosomes, in “Psychopharmacology - A Review of Progress 1957–1967” (D. H. Efron, ed.), U.S. Pub. Health Serv. Pub. No. 1836, US. Dept. Health Educ. Welfare (1968), p. 1247.Google Scholar
  205. 192.
    Jensen, F. C., A. J. Girardi, R. V. Gilden, and H. Koprowski, Infection of human and simian tissue cultures with Rous sarcoma virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 52: 53 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 193.
    Judd, L. L., W. W. Brandkamp, and W. H. McGlothlin, Comparison of the chromosomal patterns obtained from groups of continued users, former users, and nonusers of LSD-25, Amer. J. Psychiat. 126: 626 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 194.
    Kao, F. T., and T. T. Puck, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells. IX. Quantitation of mutagenesis by physical and chemical agents, J. Cell Physiol. 74: 245 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 195.
    Kato, R., Chromosome breakage induced by a carcinogenic hydrocarbon in Chinese hamster cells and human leukocytes in vitro, Hereditas 59: 120 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 196.
    Kato, T., L. F. Jarvik, L. Roizin, and E. Moralishvili, Chromosome studies in pregnant Rhesus macaque given LSD-25, Dis. Nerv. Sys. 31: 245 (1970).Google Scholar
  210. 197.
    Kato, T., and L. F. Jarvik. LSD-25 and genetic damage, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 30: 42 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 198.
    Kato, H., and R. J. Keehn, Mortality in live-born children who were in utero at time of the atomic bomb, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Tech. Rept. Series No. 13–66: 1 (1966).Google Scholar
  212. 199.
    Kaul, B. L., The effect of some treatment conditions on the radiomimetic activity of 1-methyl-3-nitrosoguanidine in plants, Mutat. Res. 7: 43 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 200.
    Kelly, F., and M. Legator, Effect of N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine on the cell cycle and chromosomes of human embryonic lung cells. Mutat. Res. 10: 237 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 201.
    Kihlman, B. A., Biochemical aspects of chromosome breakage, Adv. Genet. 10: 1 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 202.
    Kihlman; B. A., The production of chromatid aberrations by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine alone and in combination with X-rays and 8-ethoxycaffeine, Carylogia 15: 261 (1962).Google Scholar
  216. 203.
    Kihlman, B. A., W. W. Nichols, and A. Levan, The effect of deoxyadenosine and cytosine arabinoside on the chromosomes of human leukocytes in vitro, Hereditas 50: 139 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 204.
    Kihlman, B. A., T. Eriksson, and G. Odmark, Effects of hydroxyurea on chromosomes, cell division, and nucleic acid synthesis in Vicia faba, Hereditas 55: 386 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 205.
    Kihlman, B. A., “Actions of Chemicals on Dividing Cells,” Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1966).Google Scholar
  219. 206.
    Kleinsmith, L. J., V. G. Allfrey, and A. E. Mirsky, Phosphorylation of nuclear protein early in the course of gene activation in lymphocytes, Science 154: 780 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 207.
    Kohn, G. S., W. J. Mellman, P. S. Moorhead, J. Loftus, and G. Henle, Involvement of C-group chromosomes in five Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 38: 209 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 208.
    Krippner, S., Drug deceptions, Science 168: 654 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 209.
    LaCour, L. F., Acetic-orcein, Stain Technol. 16: 169 (1941).Google Scholar
  223. 210.
    Langlands, A. O., P. G. Smith, K. E. Buckton, G. E. Woodcock, and J. McLelland, Chromosome damage induced by radiation, Nature 218: 1133 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 211.
    Lea, D. E., “Actions of Radiations on Living Cells,” Cambridge University Press, London (1962).Google Scholar
  225. 212.
    Lea, D. E., and D. G. Catcheside, The relation between recessive lethals, dominant lethals, and chromosome aberrations in Drosophila, J. Genet. 47: 10 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 213.
    Lequesne, P. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  227. 214.
    Liley, A. W., The technique and complications of amniocentesis, New Zeal. Med. J. 59: 581 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 214a.
    Lindahl-Kiessling, K., and A. Mattson, Mechanism of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) action, Exp. Cell Res. 65: 307 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 215.
    Lisco, H., and R. A. Conard, Chromosome studies on Marshall Islanders exposed to fallout radiation, Science 157: 445 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 216.
    Loughman, W. D., T. W. Sargent, D. M. Israelstam, Leukocytes of humans exposed to lysergic acid diethylamide: lack of chromosomal damage, Science 158: 508 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 216a.
    Lubs, H. A., and F. H. Ruddle, Applications of quantitative karyotypy to chromosome variation in 4400 consecutive newborns, in “Human Population Cytogenetics,” Pfizer Medical Monographs 5, (P. A. Jacobs, W. H. Price, and P. Law, eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore (1969), p. 119.Google Scholar
  232. 217.
    Lubs, H. A., and F. H. Ruddle, Chromosomal abnormalities in the human population: estimation of rates based on New Haven newborn study, Science 169: 495 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 218.
    Lubs, H. A., and J. Samuelson, Chromosome abnormalities in lymphocytes from normal human subjects, Cytogenetics 6: 402 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 219.
    Lucas, M., A small autosomal ring chromosome in a female infant with congenital malformations, Ann. Hum. Genet. 27: 189 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 220.
    MacMahon, B. X-ray exposure and childhood cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 28: 1173 (1962).Google Scholar
  236. 221.
    MacKinney, A. A., F. Stohlman, and G. Brecher, The kinetics of cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood, Blood 19: 349 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 222.
    Makino, S., and T. Aya, Cytogenetic studies in leukocyte cultures from patients with some viral diseases and in those infected with HSV, Cytologia 33: 370 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 223.
    Mandel, J. D., and J. Greenberg, A new chemical mutagen for bacteria, 1-methyl3-nitro-l-nitrosoguanidine, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 3: 575 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 224.
    Martin, G. M., B. R. Schwartz, and M. A. Derr, Human lymphocytoid cell lines: potential hazards to laboratory workers, Lancet 2: 772 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 225.
    Mauler, R. and W. Hennessen, Virus induced alterations of chromosomes, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 16: 175 (1965).Google Scholar
  241. 226.
    Meyer, M. B., T. Merz, and E. L. Diamond, Investigation of the effects of prenatal X-ray exposure of human oogonia and oocytes as measured by later reproductive performance, Amer. J. Epidemiol. 89: 619 (1969).Google Scholar
  242. 227.
    Migeon, B. R., and T. Merz, Artefactual chromatid aberrations in untreated and X-ray-treated human lymphocytes, Nature 203: 1395 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 228.
    Miller, R. W., Persons with exceptionally high risk of leukemia, Cancer Res. 27: 2420 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 229.
    Miller, R. W., Relation between cancer and congenital defects: an epidemiologic evaluation, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40: 1079 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 230.
    Miller, R. W., Delayed radiation effects in atomic-bomb survivors, Science 166: 569 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 231.
    Milunsky, A., J. W. Littlefield, J. N. Kanfer, E. H. Kolodny, V. E. Shih, and L. Atkins, Prenatal genetic diagnosis, New Engl. J. Med. 283: 1370 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 232.
    Moore, G. E., R. E. Gerner, and H. A. Franklin, Culture of normal human leukocytes, JAMA 199: 519 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 233.
    Moore, G. E., E. Ito, K. Ulrich, and A. A. Sandberg, Culture of human leukemic cells, Cancer 19: 713 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 234.
    Moore, G. E., and J. Minowada, Human hematopoietic cell lines: a progress report, In vitro 4: 100 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 235.
    Moore, G. E., I. H. Porter, and C. C. Huang, Lymphocytoid lines from persons with sex chromosome anomalies, Science 163: 1453 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 236.
    Moorhead, P. S., Virus Effects on Host Chromosomes, in “Genetic Concepts and Neoplasia,” A collection of papers presented at the 23rd Annual Symposium on Fundamental Cancer Research 1969, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore (1970), p. 281.Google Scholar
  252. 237.
    Moorhead, P. S., P. C. Nowell, W. J. Mellman, D. M. Battips, and D. A. Hungerford, Chromosome preparations of leukocytes cultured from human peripheral blood, Exp. Cell Res. 20: 613 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 238.
    Moorhead, P. S., and E. Saksela, The sequence of chromosome aberrations during SV40 transformation of a human diploid cell strain, Hereditas 52: 271 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 239.
    Muller, H. J., Induced mutations in drosophila, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 9: 151 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 240.
    Muller, I. A. David, M. Rejskova, and D. Brezikova, Chronic occupational exposure to strontium-90 and radium-226, Lancet 2: 129 (1961).Google Scholar
  256. 241.
    Natarajan, A. T., and G. Ahnstrom, Cytogenetical effects of inorganic pyrophosphate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, Hereditas 59: 229 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 242.
    Neel, J. V., “Changing Perspectives on the Genetic Effects of Radiation,” Charles C. Thomas Pub. Co., Springfield, Ill. (1963).Google Scholar
  258. 243.
    Neel, J. V., and A. D. Bloom, Detection of environmental mutagens, Med. Clinics of North Amer. 53: 1243 (1969).Google Scholar
  259. 244.
    Neel, J. V., and N. Chagnon, The demography of two tribes of primitive, relatively unacculturated American Indians, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 59: 680 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 245.
    Neel, J. V., and W. J. Schull, “The Effects of Exposure to the Atomic Bombs on Pregnancy Termination in Hiroshima and Nagasaki,” Natl. Acad. Sci. Natl. Res. Counc. Pub. No. 461 (1956).Google Scholar
  261. 246.
    Neimann, N., J. Ducas, S. Gilgengrantz, and A. Peters, Un cas de chromosome en anneau du grouppe 13–15, Arch. Franc. Pediat. 24: 584 (1967).Google Scholar
  262. 247. Nichols, W. W., Relationships of viruses, chromosomes and carcinogenesis Hereditas 50: 53 (1963). Google Scholar
  263. 248. Nichols, W. W. In vitro chromosome breakage induced by arabinosyladenine in human leukocytes Cancer Res. 24: 1502 (1964). Google Scholar
  264. 249. Nichols, W. W., Studies on the role of viruses in somatic mutation Hereditas 55: 1 (1966). Google Scholar
  265. 250.
    Nichols, W. W., Interactions between viruses and chromosomes, in “Handbook of Molecular Cytology” (A. Lima-De-Faria, ed.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, London (1969), p. 732.Google Scholar
  266. 251. Nichols, W. W., Virus-induced chromosome abnormalities Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 24: 479 (1970). Google Scholar
  267. 252.
    Nichols, W. W., P. Aula, A. Levan, W. Heneen, and E. Norrby, Radioautography with tritiated thymidine in measles and Sendai virus-induced chromosome pulverizations, J. Cell Biol. 35: 257 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 253. Nichols, W. W., and W. K. Heneen, Chromosomal effects of arabinosylcytosine in a human diploid cell strain Hereditas 52: 402 (1965). Google Scholar
  269. 254.
    Nichols, W. W., A. Levan, P. Aula, and E. Norrby, Extreme chromosome breakage induced by measles virus in different in vitro systems, Preliminary communication, Hereditas 51: 38 (1964).Google Scholar
  270. 255. Nichols, W. W., A. Levan, P. Aula, and E. Norrby, Chromosome damage associated with the measles virus in vitro Hereditas 54: 101 (1965). Google Scholar
  271. 256.
    Nichols, W. W., A. Levan, L. L. Coriell, H. Goldner, and C. G. Ahlstrom, Chromosome abnormalities in vitro in human leukocytes associated with Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus, Science 146: 248 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 257.
    Nichols, W. W., A. Levan, B. Hall, and G. Ostergren, Measles-associated chromosome breakage, Preliminary communication, Hereditas 48: 367 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 258.
    Nichols, W. W., A. Levan, W. K. Heneen, and M. Peluse, Synergism of the SchmidtRuppin strain of Rous sarcoma virus and cytidine triphosphate in the induction of chromosome breaks in human cultured leukocytes, Hereditas 54: 213 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 259.
    Nichols, W. W., M. Peluse, C. Goodheart, R. McAllister, and C. Bradt, Autoradio-graphic studies on nuclei and chromosomes of cultured leukocytes after infection with tritium-labeled adenovirus type 12, Virology 34: 303 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 260.
    Nielsen, J., U. Friedvich, and T. Tsuboi, Chromosome abnormalities in patients treated with chlorpromazine, perphenazine, and lysergide, Brit. Med. J. 3: 634 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 261.
    Norman, A., Multi-hit aberrations, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 53.Google Scholar
  277. 262.
    Norman, A., R. E. Ottoman, M. Sasaki, and R. C. Veomett, The frequency of dicentrics in human leukocytes irradiated in vivo and in vitro, Radiology 83: 108 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 263. Norman, A., and M. S. Sasaki, Chromosome-exchange aberrations in human lymphocytes Int. J. Rad. Biol. 11: 321 (1966). Google Scholar
  279. 264.
    Norman, A., M. S. Sasaki, R. E. Ottoman, and A. G. Fingerhut, Elimination of chromosome aberrations from human lymphocytes, Blood 27: 706 (1966).Google Scholar
  280. 265.
    Norrby, E., A. Levan, and W. W. Nichols, The correlation between the chromosome pulverization effect and other biological activities of measles virus preparations, Exp. Cell Res. 41: 483 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 266.
    Nowell, P. C., Unstable chromosome changes in tuberculin-stimulated leukocyte cultures from irradiated patients. Evidence for immunologically committed, long-lived lymphocytes in human blood, Blood 26: 798 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 267.
    Nowell, P. C., Chromosome aberrations and immunological memory, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 99.Google Scholar
  283. 268.
    Nowell, P. C., and D. A. Hungerford, A minute chromosome in human chronic granulocytic leukemia, Science 132: 1497 (1960).Google Scholar
  284. 269.
    Nowell, P. C., and D. A. Hungerford, Chromosome studies on normal and leukemic human leukocytes, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. U.S. 25: 85 (1960).Google Scholar
  285. 270.
    Nowell, P. C., and D. A. Hungerford, Chromosome studies in human leukemia. II. Chronic granulocytic leukemia, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. U.S. 27: 1013 (1961).Google Scholar
  286. 271.
    Ostergren, G., and T. Wakonig, True or apparent subchromatid breakage and the induction of labile states in cytological loci, Bot. Notiser 4: 358 (1954).Google Scholar
  287. 272.
    Ozono, N., Effects of radiation on the chromosomes of the bone marrow cells, Acta Haem. Jap. 28: 308 (1965).Google Scholar
  288. 273.
    Palmer, G. C., N. Fareed, and A. D. Merritt, Ring chromosome 18 in a patient with multiple anomalies, J. Med. Genet. 4: 117 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 274.
    Paton, G. R., and A. C. Allison, Chromosome breakage by deoxyribonuclease, Nature 227: 707 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 275.
    Patton, G. R., J. P. Jacobs, and F. T. Perkins, Chromosome changes in human diploid cell cultures infected with Mycoplasma, Nature 207: 43 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 276.
    Petit, P., and R. Poncelet, Un nouveau cas de chromosome en anneau (18r), Ann. Genet. 10: 134 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 277.
    Pollack, E. J., and G. J. Todaro, Radiation enhancement of SV40 transformation in 3T3 and human cells, Nature 219: 520 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 278.
    Pope, J. H., Establishment of cell lines from peripheral leucocytes in infectious mononucleosis, Nature 216: 810 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 278a.
    Prakash, L., Personal communication (1971).Google Scholar
  295. 279.
    Quaglino, D. F. G. J. Hayhoe, and R. J. Flemans, Cytochemical observations on the effect of phytohaemagglutinin in short-term tissue cultures, Nature 196: 338 (1962).Google Scholar
  296. 280.
    Rapp, F., and T. C. Hsu, Viruses and mammalian chromosomes. IV. ReplicationGoogle Scholar
  297. of herpes simplex virus in diploid Chinese hamster cells, Virology 25: 401 (1965). 280a. Ratcliffe, S. G., A. L. Stewart, M. M. Melville, P. A. Jacobs, and A. J. KeayGoogle Scholar
  298. Chromosome studies on 3500 newborn male infants, Lancet 1: 121 (1970).Google Scholar
  299. 281.
    Revell, S. H., Chromosome breakage by X-ray and radiomimetic substances in Vicia (in Symposium on Chromosome Breakage), Heredity 6 (suppl.): 107 (1953).Google Scholar
  300. 282.
    Revell, S. H., A new hypothesis for chromatid changes, stit, in Proc. Radiol. Symp. Liège (Z. M. Bacq and P. Alexander, ed.), Butterworths, London (1955).Google Scholar
  301. 283.
    Revell, S. H., The accurate estimation of chromatid breakage, and its relevance to a new interpretation of chromatid aberrations induced by ionizing radiations, Proc. Roy. S.c. (London) Ser. B 150: 563 (1959).Google Scholar
  302. 284.
    Richards, W. B., A. T. Rundle, J. Zaremba, and A. Stewart, Ring chromosome 18 in a mentally retarded boy, J. Ment. Defic. Res. 14: 174 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 285.
    Roux, C., D. Dupuis, and M. Aubry, LSD: no teratogenic action in rats, mice, and hamsters, Science 169: 588 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 286.
    Rubin, A. D., and H. L. Cooper, Evolving patterns of RNA metabolism during transition from resting state to active growth in lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 54: 469 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 287.
    Russell, W. L., Effect of the interval between irradiation and conception on mutation frequency in female mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 54: 1552 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 288.
    Russell, W. L., L. B. Russell, and E. M. Kelly, Radiation dose rate and mutation frequency, Science 128: 1546 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 289.
    Rutovitz, D., Machines to classify chromosomes, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 58.Google Scholar
  308. 290.
    Rutovitz, D. Automatic chromosome analysis, Brit. Med. Bull. 24: 260 (1968).Google Scholar
  309. 291.
    Rutovitz, D., “Human Population Genetics” (R. A. Jacobs, ed.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore (1969), p. 264.Google Scholar
  310. 292.
    Sakaoka, H., and M. Green, Virus-specific RNA in polysome of SV40 tumor cells, Med. BioL (Tokyo) 81: 139 (1970).Google Scholar
  311. 293.
    Sambrook, J. H. Westphal, P. R. Srinivasan, and R. Dulbecco, The integrated state of viral DNA in SV40-transformed cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 60: 1288 (1968).Google Scholar
  312. 294.
    Sampson, R. J., C. R. Key, C. R. Buncher, and S. Iijma, Prevalence of thyroid carcinoma at autopsy, Hiroshima 1957–68, Nagasaki 1951–67, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Tech. Rept. Series No. 25–68: 1 (1968).Google Scholar
  313. 295.
    Sandberg, A. A., M. M. Cohen, A. A. Rimm, and M. L. Levin, Aneuploidy and age in a population survey, Amer. J. Human Genet. 19: 633 (1967).Google Scholar
  314. 296.
    Sandberg, A. A., and D. K. Hossfeld, Chromosomal abnormalities in human neoplasia, Ann. Rev. Med. 21: 379 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 297.
    Sasaki, M. S., and H. Miyata, Biological dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors, Nature 220: 1189 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 298.
    Sasaki, M. S., and A. Norman, Proliferation of human lymphocytes in culture, Nature 210: 913 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 299.
    Sasaki, M. S., and A. Norman, Selection against chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes, Nature 214: 502 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 300.
    Sato, H., and T. Kadotani, Fetal skin biopsy, JAMA 212: 323 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 301.
    Sawitsky, A., D. Bloom, and J. German, Chromosomal breakage and acute leukemia in congenital telangiectatic erythema and stunted growth, Ann. Intern. Med. 65: 487 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 302.
    Sax, K., Chromosome aberrations induced by X-rays, Genetics 23: 494 (1938).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 303.
    Sax, K., The time factor in X-ray production of chromosome aberrations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 25: 225 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 304.
    Sax, K., An analysis of X-ray induced chromosomal aberrations in Tradescantia, Genetics 25: 41 (1940).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 305.
    Sax, K., Types and frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by X-rays, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 9: 93 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 306.
    Sax, K., and H. J. Sax, Radiomimetic beverages, drugs, and mutagens, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 55: 1431 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 307.
    Schmickel, R. Chromosome aberrations in leukocytes exposed in vitro to diagnostic levels of X-rays, Am. J. Hum. Gen. 19: 1 (1967).Google Scholar
  326. 308.
    Schutt, W. J., Personal communication.Google Scholar
  327. 309.
    Schull, W. J., and J. V. Neel, Maternal radiation and mongolism, Lancet 1: 537 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 310.
    Schull, W. J., J. V. Neel, and A. Hashizume, Some further observations on the sex ratio among infants born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 18: 328 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 311.
    Scott, D. The effect of irradiated plasma on normal human chromosomes and its relevance to the long-lived lymphocyte hypothesis, Cell Tissue Kinet. 2: 295 (1969).Google Scholar
  330. 312.
    Scott, D., A. L. Batchelor, H. Sharpe, and H. J. Evans, RBE for fast neutrons and dose rate studiès using fast neutron irradiation, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 37.Google Scholar
  331. 312a.
    Sergovich, F., G. H. Valentine, A. T. Chen, R. A. Kinch, and M. S. Smout, Chromosome aberrations in 2159 consecutive newborn babies, New Eng. J. Med. 280: 851 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 313.
    Sharma, A. K., and A. Sharma, Spontaneous and chemically induced chromosome breaks, Intl. Rev. Cytol. 10: 101 (1960).Google Scholar
  333. 314.
    Shaw, M. W., Human chromosome damage by chemical agents, Ann. Rev. Med. 21: 409 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 314a.
    Shein, H. M., and J. F. Enders, Transformation induced by simian virus 40 in human renal cell cultures. I. Morphology and growth characteristics, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 48: 1164 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 315.
    Sigler, A. T., A. M. Lilenfeld, B. Cohen, and J. E. Westlake, Radiation exposure in parents of children with mongolism (Down’s syndrome), Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 117: 374 (1965).Google Scholar
  336. 316.
    Skakkebaek, N. E., J. Phillip, and O. J. Rafaelsen, LSD in mice: abnormalities in meiotic chromosomes, Science 160: 1246 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 317.
    Smith, D. E., and A. J. Rose, The use and abuse of LSD in Haight-Ashbury (Observations by the Haight-Ashbury Medical Clinic), Clin. Pediatrics 7: 317 (1968).Google Scholar
  338. 318.
    Smith-White, S., W. J. Peacock, B. Turner, and G. M. DenDulk, A ring chromosome in man, Nature 197: 102 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 319.
    Sparkes, R. S., J. Melnyk, and L. P. Bozzetti, Chromosomal effect in vivo of exposure to lysergic acid diethylamide, Science 160: 1343 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 320.
    Stevens, D. P. L. F. Barker, H. E. Hopps, and H. M. Meyer, Jr., Herpeslike virus (E. B. virus) in continuous lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with viral hepatitis, J. Immun. 105: 1040 (1970).Google Scholar
  341. 321.
    Stewart, A., and G. W. Kneale, Radiation dose effects in relation to obstetric X-rays and childhood cancers, Lancet 1: 1185 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 322.
    Stewart, J., S. Go, E. Ellis, and A. Robinson, IgA and partial deletion of chromosome 18, Lancet 2: 779 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 323.
    Stewart, J. S., and A. R. Sanderson, Chromosomal aberration after diagnostic X-irradiation, Lancet 1: 978 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 324.
    Stitch, H. F., and D. S. Yohn, Viruses and chromosomes, Prog. Med. Virol. 12: 78 (1970).Google Scholar
  345. 325.
    Sugiyama, T. Y. Kurita, and Y. Nishizuka, Chromosome abnormality in rat leukemia induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, Science 158: 1058 (1967).Google Scholar
  346. 326.
    Swanson, C. P., “Cytology and Cytogenetics,” Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1957), p. 297.Google Scholar
  347. 327.
    Swift, M. R., and K. Hirschhorn, Fanconi anemia: inherited susceptibility to chromosome breakage in various tissues, Ann. Intern. Med. 65: 496 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 328.
    Szybalska, R. H., and W. Szybalski, Genetics of human cell lines. IV. DNA-mediated heritable transformation of a biochemical trait. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 48: 2026 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 329.
    Takagi, N., T. Aya, H. Kato, and A. A. Sandberg, Relation of virus induced cell fusion and chromosome pulverization to mitotic events, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. U.S. 43: 335 (1969).Google Scholar
  350. 330.
    Tanaka, Y., L. B. Epstein, G. Brecher, and F. Stohlman, Jr., Transformation of lymphocytes in cultures of human peripheral blood, Blood 22: 614 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 331.
    Taylor, J. H., W. F. Haut, and J. Tung, Effects of fluorodeoxyuridine on DNA replication, chromosome breakage, and reunion, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 48: 190 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 332.
    Thoday, J. M., Sister-union isolocus breaks in irradiated Vicia faba: the target theory and physiological variation, Heredity (suppl.) 6: 299 (1953).Google Scholar
  353. 333.
    Tjio, J. H., Personal communication of an unpublished pilot study (1967–68).Google Scholar
  354. 334.
    Tjio, J. H., and A. Levan, The chromosome number of man, Hereditas 42: 6 (1956).Google Scholar
  355. 335.
    Tjio, J. H., W. N. Pahnke, and A. A. Kurland, LSD and chromosomes. A controlled experiment, JAMA 210: 849 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 336.
    Tjio, J. H., and J. Whang, Chromosome preparations of bone marrow cells without prior in vitro culture or in vivo colchicine administration, Stain Technol. 37: 17 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 337.
    Todaro, G. J., and S. A. Aaronson, Properties of clonal lines of murine sarcoma virus transformed BALB-3T3 cells, Virology 38: 174 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 338.
    Todaro, G. J., and H. Green, High frequency of SV40 transformation of mouse cell line 3T3, Virology 28: 756 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 339.
    Todaro, G. J., and H. Green, Cell growth and the initiation of transformation by SV40, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 55: 302 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 340.
    Todaro, G. J., and H. Green, Simian virus 40 transformation and the period of cellular deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, J. Virology 1: 115 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 341.
    Todaro, G. J., J. H. Green, and M. R. Swift, Susceptibility of human diploid fibroblast strains to transformation by SV40 virus, Science 153: 1252 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 342.
    Todaro, G. J., and G. M. Martin, Increased susceptibility of Down’s syndrome fibroblasts to transformation by SV40, Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med. 124: 1232 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 343.
    Tolby, B. E., and F. Hecht, Human chromosome breakage. Microscopy versus photomicroscopy, Ann. Genet. 11: 169 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 344.
    Tomasz, A., Cellular factors in genetic transformation, Scientific Amer. 220: 38 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 345.
    Tough, I. M., K. E. Buckton, A. G. Baikie, and W. M. Court Brown, X-ray-induced chromosome damage in man, Lancet 2: 849 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 346.
    Turner, B. A. N. Jennings, G. DenDulk, and T. Stapleton, A self-perpetuating ring chromosome, Med. J. Aust. 49: 56 (1962).Google Scholar
  367. 347.
    Tuscany, R., and J. Muller, Chromosomal study of bone marrow and peripheral blood in persons carrying body burdens of “’Ra and ”Sr, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 203.Google Scholar
  368. 348.
    Uchida, I. A., and E. J. Curtis, A possible association between maternal radiation and mongolism, Lancet 2: 848 (1961).Google Scholar
  369. 349.
    Uchida, I. A., R. Holunga, and C. Lawler, Maternal radiation and chromosomal aberrations, Lancet 2: 1045 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 350.
    United Nations Report of the Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. General Assembly Official Records, 24th Session, suppl. no. 13 (A/7613), New York: United Nations (1969).Google Scholar
  371. 351.
    Vaughn, J. Bone disease induced by radiation, Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol. 1: 243 (1962).Google Scholar
  372. 352.
    Visfeldt, J., Chromosome aberrations in occupationally exposed personnel, in a radiotherapy department, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 167.Google Scholar
  373. 352a.
    Wada, S., M. Miyanishi, Y. Nishimoto, S. Kambe, and R. W. Miller, Mustard gas as a cause of respiratory neoplasia in man, Lancet 1: 1161 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 353.
    Wajima, T., A. D. Bloom, and H. B. Hamilton, Lactic dehydrogenase isozymes in three-day cultures of human leukocytes, Med. Biol. Jap. 73: 206 (1966).Google Scholar
  375. 354.
    Wald, N., “Human Population Cytogenetics,” (P. A. Jacobs, ed.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore (1969), p. 264.Google Scholar
  376. 355.
    Wald, N., A. Koizumi, and S. Pan, A pilot study of the relationships between chromosome aberrations and occupational external and internal radiation exposure, in “Human Radiation Cytogenetics” (H. J. Evans, W. M. Court Brown, and A. S. McLean, eds.), North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1967), p. 183.Google Scholar
  377. 356.
    Wanebo, C. K., K. G. Johnson, K. Sato, and T. W. Thorslund, Lung cancer and atomic bomb exposure, ABCC Technical Report 12–67 (1967).Google Scholar
  378. 357.
    Wanebo, C. K., K. G. Johnson, K. Sato, and T. W. Thorslund, Breast cancer in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study, ABCC Technical Report 13–67: 1 (1967).Google Scholar
  379. 358.
    Wanebo, C. K., K. G. Johnson, K. Sato, and T. W. Thorslund, Breast cancer after exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, New Engl. J. Med. 279: 667 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 359.
    Wanebo, C. K., K. G. Johnson, K. Sato, and T. W. Thorslund, Lung cancer following atomic radiation, Amer. Rev. Resp. Dis. 98: 779 (1968).Google Scholar
  381. 360.
    Warkany, J. and E. Takas, Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): no teratogenicity in rats, Science 159: 731 (1968).Google Scholar
  382. 361.
    Waxman, S. H., D. T. Arakaki, and J. B. Smith, Cytogenetics of fetal abortions, Pediatrics 39: 425 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 362.
    Whang, J. E. Frei, J. H. Tjio, P. P. Carbone, and G. Brecher, The distribution of the Philadelphia chromosome in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia, Blood 22: 664 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 363.
    Wolf, C. P., J. A. Peterson, G. A. Logrippo, and L. Weiss, Ring 1 chromosome and dwarfism, a possible syndrome, J. Pediat. 71: 719 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 364.
    Wolff, S., The kinetics for two-break chromosome exchanges, J. Theoret. Biol. 3: 304 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 365.
    Wolff, S., Radiation studies on the nature of chromosome breakage, Amer. Naturalist 94: 85 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 366.
    Wolff, S., and D. Scott, Repair of radiation induced damage to chromosomes: independence of known DNA dark repair mechanisms, Exp. Cell Res. 55: 9 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 367.
    Wolman, S. R., K. Hirschhorn, and G. J. Todaro, Early chromosomal changes in SV40-infected human fibroblast cultures, Cytogenetics 3: 45 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 368.
    Wood, J. W., K. G. Johnson, and Y. Omori, In utero exposure to the Hiroshima atomic bomb—an evaluation of head size and mental retardation: twenty years later, Pediatrics 39: 385 (1967).Google Scholar
  390. 369.
    Wood, J. W., K. G. Johnson, Y. Omori, S. Kawamoto, and R. J. Keehn, Mental retardation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Amer. J. Pub. Health 57: 1381 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. 370.
    Wood, J. W., H. Tamagaki, S. Neriishi, T. Sato, W. F. Sheldon, P. G. Archer, H. B. Hamilton, and K. G. Johnson, Thyroid carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Amer. J. Epidemiol. 89: 4 (1969).Google Scholar
  392. 371.
    Zellweger, H., J. S. McDonald, and G. Abbo, Is lysergic acid diethylamide a teratogen?, Lancet 2: 1066 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 372.
    Zur Hausen, H., Chromosomal changes of a similar nature in seven established cell lines derived from the peripheral blood of patients with leukemia, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 38: 683 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 373.
    Zur Hausen, H., Induction of specific chromosomal aberrations by adenovirus type 12 in human embryonic kidney cells, J. Virology 1: 1174 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. 374.
    Zur Hausen, H., Association of adenovirus type 12 deoxyribonucleic acid with host cell chromosomes, J. Virology 2: 218 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 375.
    Zur Hausen, H. G. Klein, W. Henle, G. Henle, P. Clifford, and L. Santesson, EBV DNA in biopsies of Burkitt tumors and anaplastic carcinomas of the naso-pharynx, Nature 228: 1056 (1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur D. Bloom
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human GeneticsUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations