Flow Through Mechanical Heart Valves and Thrombosis: Visualization by Washing Test

  • Bernard Brami
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 235)


Since the emergence of the first Hufnagel valve about thirty years ago, valve prostheses have continuously, but slowly, been improved; however, such devices still are associated with a number of problems. The choice between mechanical and tissue valves is still controversial and it is clear that the ideal prosthetic valve does not as yet exist(1–3). With respect to mechanical valves there have been a number of stages in their development. The initial stage was characterized by the use of many improper valve designs, which led to disastrous consequences until the development in 1960 of the Starr-Edwards valve. This device proved safer than many earlier ones and consequently it became adopted by the surgical community. During this period, long term usage of these devices revealed several defects inherent to this type of prosthesis, specifically related to mechanical and thromboembolic failures. In 1973 pyrolitic carbon was developed for valve components. This material limited excessive valve wear and also reduced the level of thromboembolic events(4).


Heart Valve Mechanical Valve Laser Doppler Anemometry Valve Prosthesis Mechanical Heart Valve 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard Brami
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre d’Etudes Coeur et FluidesParisFrance

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