Physical and Chemical Properties of Lactose

  • V. H. Holsinger


The primary carbohydrate of the milk of most mammals is lactose (4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose), commonly called milk sugar, and milk is the sole source of lactose for all practical purposes. However, the California sea lion and other Pacific pinnipeds have no lactose in their milks (Pilson and Kelly, 1962; Pilson, 1965; Johnson et al. 1974; Stewart et al., 1983). Milks of monotremes, such as the echidna and platypus, contain less than 0.1% lactose (Morrissey, 1985), while human milk contains one of the highest levels of lactose at about 7% (Renner, 1983). Bovine milks average 4.8% anhydrous lactose, amounting to about 50% of the total solids of skimmed milk.


Whey Protein Total Solid Maillard Reaction Cheese Whey Lactose Hydrolysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition (1990) Practical significance of lactose intolerance in children: supplement. Pediatrics 86, 643–4.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, G.R. (1984) Distinguishing pasteurized, UHT and sterilized milks by their lactulose content. J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 37, 92–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, G. (1989) Lactulose in heated milk, in Monograph on Heat-Induced Changes in Milk, ed P.F. Fox, Bulletin 238, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 46–52.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (1990) Research plan gives whey to clear highways. Dayton Daily News, Friday, August 24, Dayton, OH, p. 1-D.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1995) Food Chemical News, Vol. 37(3): March 13, CRC Press, Inc., Washington, DC, p. 15.Google Scholar
  6. Barry, J.M. and Rowland, J.J. (1953) Variations in the ionic and lactose concentrations in milk. Biochem. J., 54, 575–8.Google Scholar
  7. Berg, H.E. and van Boekel, M.A.J.S. (1994) Degradation of lactose during heating of milk. 1. Reaction pathways. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 48, 157–75.Google Scholar
  8. Berlin, E., Anderson, B.A., and Pallansch, M.J. (1968a) Water vapor sorption properties of various dried milks and wheys. J. Dairy Sci., 51, 1339–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berlin, E., Anderson, B.A. and Pallansch, M.J. (1968b) Comparison of water vapor sorption by milk powder components. J. Dairy Sci., 51, 1912–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berlin, E., Kliman, P.G., Anderson, B.A. and Pallansch, M.J. (1973) Water binding in whey concentrates. J. Dairy Sci., 56, 984–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berliner, L.J. and Johnson, J.D. (1988) a-Lactalbumin and calmodulin, in Calcium Binding Proteins, Vol. II, Biological Functions, (M.P. Thompson ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 79–116.Google Scholar
  12. Berliner, L.J., Andree, P.J. and Kaptein, R. (1978) ESR, NMR and CIDNP studies of cation binding to a-lactalbumin. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Magnetic Resonance Biological Systems, Nara, Japan, p. 115.Google Scholar
  13. Berliner, L.J., Davis, M.E., Ebner, K.E., et al. (1984) The lactose synthase acceptor site: a structural map derived from acceptor studies. Mol. Cell Biochem., 62, 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berliner, L.J., Koga, K., Nishikawa, H. and Scheffler, J.E. (1987) High-resolution proton and laser photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization NMR studies of cation binding to bovine a-lactalbumin. Biochemistry, 26, 5769–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blankers, I. (1995) Properties and applications of lactitol. Food Technol., 49, 66–8.Google Scholar
  16. Brew, K., Shaper, J.H., Olsen, K.W., et al. (1975) Cross-linking of the components of lactose synthetase with dimethylpimelimidate. J. Biol. Chem., 250, 1434–44.Google Scholar
  17. Brinkman, G.E. (1976) New ideas for the utilization of lactose — principles of lactose manufacture. J. Soc. Dairy Technol., 29, 101–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buma, T.J. and Wiegers, G.A. (1967) X-ray powder patterns of lactose and unit cell dimensions of 0-lactose. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 21, 208–13.Google Scholar
  19. Burton, H. (1984) Reviews of the progress of dairy science: the bacteriological, chemical, biochemical and physical changes that occur in milk at temperatures of 100–150°C. J. Dairy Res., 51, 341–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bushill, H., Wright, W.B., Fuller, C.H.F. and Bell, A.V. (1969) The crystallization of lactose with particular reference to its occurrence in milk powder, in Proc. First Int. Congr. Food Sci. Technol. Vol. 1. Chemical and Physical Aspects of Food, (J.M. Leitch ed.) London, September 18–21, 1962, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, pp. 237–45.Google Scholar
  21. Carie, M. (1994) Concentrated and Dried Dairy Products, VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 1–249.Google Scholar
  22. Carie, M. and Kalab, M. (1987) Effects of drying techniques on milk powders (sic) quality and microstructure: a review. Food Microstructure, 6, 171–80.Google Scholar
  23. Cerbulis, J., Pfeffer, P.E. and Farrell, H.M., Jr. (1978) Reaction of lactose with urea. Carbohydr. Res., 65, 311–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chiu, C.P. and Kosikowski, F.V. (1985) Hydrolyzed lactose syrup from concentrated sweet whey permeates. J. Dairy Sci., 68, 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clamp, J.R., Hough, L., Hickson, J.L. and Whistler, R.L. (1961) Lactose, in Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Vol 16, ( M.L. Wolfram and R.S. Tyson eds.) Academic Press, New York, pp. 159–206.Google Scholar
  26. Code of Federal Regulations (1994) 172.720, Calcium lactobionate, in Title 21: Food and Drugs,Food and Drug Administration, 1 April, pp. 63–4.Google Scholar
  27. Coughlin, J.R. and Nickerson, T.A. (1975) Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lactose in whey and aqueous systems. J. Dairy Sci., 58, 169–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. de Boer, R. and Robbertsen, T. (1981) A purified hydrolyzed lactose syrup made from ultrafiltration permeate. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 35, 95–111.Google Scholar
  29. de Vrese, M. (1993) Physiological and metabolic effects of consuming hydrolyzed lactose products, in Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 62–4.Google Scholar
  30. Delmont, J. (1983) Milk Intolerances and Rejections, S. Karger, Basel, pp. 1–169.Google Scholar
  31. Doner, L.W. and Hicks, K.B. (1982) Lactose and the sugars of honey and maple: reactions, properties and analysis, in Food Carbohydrates, ( D.R. Lineback and G.E. Inglett eds.) AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT, pp. 74–112.Google Scholar
  32. Domovs, K.B. and Freund, E.H. (1960) Methanol-soluble complexes of lactose and of other carbohydrates. J. Dairy Sci., 42, 1216–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ebner, K.E. and Schanbacher, F.L. (1974) Biochemistry of lactose and related carbohydrates, in Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. II, ( B.L. Larson and V.R. Smith eds.) Academic Press, New York, pp. 77–113.Google Scholar
  34. Erbersdobler, H.F. (1986) Twenty years of furosine — better knowledge about the biological significance of Maillard reaction in food and nutrition, in Amino-Carbonyl Reactions in Food and Biological Systems, ( M. Fujimaki, M. Namiki and H. Kato eds.) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 481–91.Google Scholar
  35. Erbersdobler, H.F. and Dehn-Müller, B. (1989) Formation of early Maillard products during UHT treatment of milk, in Heat-induced Changes in Milk, (P.F. Fox ed.) Bulletin 238, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 62–7.Google Scholar
  36. Fuertes, P. and Fleche, G. (1991) Process for oxidation of di-, tri-, oligo-andpolysaccharides into polyhydroxycarboxylic acids, the catalyst used and the products so obtained. Eur. Patent 232, 202.Google Scholar
  37. Geilman, W.G. (1993) Preparation and properties of syrups made by the hydrolysis of lactose, in Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 33–7.Google Scholar
  38. Grenby, T.H. (1989) Latest state of research on lactitol and dental caries. Int. Dental J., 39, 25–32.Google Scholar
  39. Guy, E.J. (1982) Stabilization of frozen goat milk concentrates by enzymatic lactose hydrolysis. J. Food Sci., 47, 423–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hall, C.W. and Hedrick, T.I. (1971) Drying of Milk and Milk Products, 2nd edn, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT, pp. 1–338.Google Scholar
  41. Hanrahan, F.P. and Webb, B.H. (1961a) Spray drying cottage cheese whey. J. Dairy Sci., 44, 1171 (abstract).Google Scholar
  42. Hanrahan, F.P. and Webb, B.H. (1961b) U.S. Department of Agriculture develops foam-spray drying. Food Eng., 33 (8), 37–8.Google Scholar
  43. Hargrove, R.E., McDonough, F.E., LaCroix, D.E. and Alford, J.A. (1976) Production and properties of deproteinized whey powders. J. Dairy Sci., 59, 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harju, M. (1993) Production and properties of lactulose, lactitol and lactobionic acid, in Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 27–30.Google Scholar
  45. Harju, M., Vesanen, K., Perttila, M. and Jalkanen, M. (1990) A new method to improve the yield in the lactose manufacture. Brief Comm. and Abstr. Posters 23rd Int. Dairy Congr., Vol. II., p. 427 (abstract).Google Scholar
  46. Hendriks, H.E.J., Kuster, B.F.M. and Martin, G.B. (1990) The effect of bismuth on the selective oxidation of lactose on supported palladium catalysts. Carbohydr. Res., 204, 121–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Herrington, B.L. (1948) Milk and Milk Processing, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, p. 84.Google Scholar
  48. Hicks, K.B. and Parrish, F.W. (1980) A new method for preparation of lactulose from lactose. Carbohydr. Res., 82, 393–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hicks, K.B., Raupp, D.L. and Smith, P.W. (1984) Preparation of purification of lactulose from sweet cheese whey ultrafiltrate. J. Agric. Food Chem., 32, 28892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoagland, P.D., Pfeffer, P.E. and Valentine, K.M. (1979) Reductive amination of lactose: unusual 13C-NMR spectroscopic properties of N-alkyl-(1-deoxylactitol1-yl) amines. Carbohydr. Res., 74, 135–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hobman, P.G. (1984) Review of processes and products for utilization of lactose in deproteinized milk serum. J. Dairy Sci., 67, 2630–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hoffmann, K. (1975) Behandlung von gesunden Salmonellen-Ausscheidern mit Lactulose (ß-Galaktosido-Fructose). Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., 100, 1429–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Holsinger, V.H. (1978) Application of lactose modified milk and whey. Food Technol., 32, 35–6, 38, 40.Google Scholar
  54. Holsinger, V.H. (1987) Lactose, in Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry, 3rd edn, ( N.P. Wong, R. Jenness, M. Keeney and E.H. Marth eds.) Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, pp. 279–342.Google Scholar
  55. Holsinger, V.H. and Kligerman, A.E. (1991) Applications of lactase in dairy foods and other foods containing lactose. Food Technol., 45(1), 92, 94–5.Google Scholar
  56. Horton, B.S. (1987) Anaerobic fermentation and ultra-osmosis, in Trends in Whey Utilization, Bulletin 212, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 77–83.Google Scholar
  57. Hramtsov, A.G., Rokhmistrov, V.V., Evdokimov, I.A., Kostina, V.V., Abdulina, E.R. and Pavlov, V.A. (1990) Milk sugar making by membrane technology. Brief Comm. and Abstr. Posters 23rd Int. Dairy Congr., Vol. II. Montreal, p. 393 (abstract).Google Scholar
  58. Hunziker, O.F. (1946) Condensed Milk and Milk Products, 6th edn, Hunziker, La Grange, IL, pp. 133–90.Google Scholar
  59. Hustad, G.O., Richardson, T. and Amundson, C.H. (1970) Polyurethane foams from dried whey. J. Dairy Sci., 53, 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. IDF (1991) Heat treated milk — determination of lactulose content (HPLC and GC methods). International Standard No. 147:1991, International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  61. IDF (1993) Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 3–71.Google Scholar
  62. Isaacson, Y., Salem, O., Shepherd, R.E. and, van Thiel, D.H. (1989) Lactobionic acid as an iron chelator: a rationale for its effectiveness as an organ preservant. Life Sci., 45, 2373–80.Google Scholar
  63. Jelen, P. (1993) Lactose hydrolysis using sonicated dairy cultures, in Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 54–6.Google Scholar
  64. Jenness, R. and Sloan, R.E. (1970) The composition of milks of various species: a review. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 32, 599–607.Google Scholar
  65. Jenness, R., Regehr, E.A. and Sloan, R.E. (1964) Comparative biochemical studies of milks. II. Dialyzable carbohydrates. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 13, 339–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Johnson, J.D., Kretchmer, N. and Simoons, F.J. (1974) Lactose malabsorption: its biology and history, in Advances in Pediatrics, Vol. 21, ( I. Schulman ed.) Yearbook Publishers, Chicago, pp. 197–237.Google Scholar
  67. Jones, E.A. (1978) Lactose biosynthesis, in Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. IV, ( B.L. Larson and V.R. Smith eds.) Academic Press, New York, pp. 371–85.Google Scholar
  68. Keller, A.K. (1990) Permeate utilization, in Proceedings, Dairy Products Technical Conference, American Dairy Products Institute, Chicago, pp. 101–7.Google Scholar
  69. Kitahata, S., Fujita, K., Takagi, Y., et al. (1992) Galactosylation at side chains of branched cyclodextrins by various ß-galactosidases. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 56, 242–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kozempel, M. and Kurantz, M. (1994a) The isomerization kinetics of lactose to lactulose in the presence of borate. J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol., 59, 25–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kozempel, M. and Kurantz, M. (1994b) A continuous reactor system for production of lactulose. J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol., 59, 265–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kuhn, R. and Low, I.L. (1949) The occurrence of lactose in the plant kingdom. Chem. Ber., 82, 479–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kumar, S., Clarke, A.R., Hooper, M.L., et al. (1994) Milk composition and lactation of 0-casein-deficient mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91, 6138–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Leviton, A. and Leighton, A. (1938) Separation of lactose and soluble proteins of whey by alcohol extraction. Ind. Eng. Chem., 30, 1305–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lin, A.Y. and Nickerson, T.A. (1977) Acid hydrolysis of lactose in whey versus aqueous solutions. J. Dairy Sci., 60, 34–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Linzell, J.L. and Peaker, M. (1971) Mechanism of milk secretion. Physiol. Rev., 51, 564–97.Google Scholar
  77. Little, C.L. (1991) Freeze dried sweetened condensed milk crystals and process of making. US Patent 5, 024, 848.Google Scholar
  78. MacBean, R.D. (1979) Lactose crystallization and lactose hydrolysis. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 14, 113–19, 128–30.Google Scholar
  79. Mahoney, R.R. (1985) Modification of lactose and lactose-containing dairy products with ß-galactosidase, in Developments in Dairy Chemistry-3—Lactose and Minor Constituents, ( P.F. Fox ed.) Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 69–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mepham, T.B. (ed.) (1987) Physiology of Lactation, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, pp. 30–50.Google Scholar
  81. Miller, G.D., Jarvis, J.K. and McBean, L.D. (1994) Handbook of Dairy Foods and Nutrition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 1–260.Google Scholar
  82. Mitchell, I.R. (1991) Uses for lactose-hydrolyzed dairy products. CSIRO Food Res. Q., 51 (1 2), 107–13.Google Scholar
  83. Modler, H.W. (1993) Summary of discussions, in Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 3–6.Google Scholar
  84. Modler, H.W., Gelda, A., Yaguchi, M. and Gelda, S. (1993) Production of fluid milk with a high degree of lactose hydrolysis, in Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 57–61.Google Scholar
  85. Morrissey, P.A. (1985) Lactose: chemical and physicochemical properties, in Developments in Dairy Chemistry -3, ( P.F. Fox ed.) Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mulherin, B, Muller, T., Delaney, R.A.M. and Harper, W.J. (1979) Acid catalyzed hydrolysis of lactose with cation exchange resins. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 14, 127–30.Google Scholar
  87. Mullin, J.W. (1961) Crystallization, Butterworths, London, pp. 21–43.Google Scholar
  88. Murakami, K. and Berliner, L.J. (1983) A distinct zinc binding site in the a-lactal-bumins regulates calcium binding. Is there a physiological role for this control? Biochemistry, 22, 3370–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nickerson, T.A. (1962) Lactose crystallization in ice cream. IV. Factors responsible for reduced incidence of sandiness. J. Dairy Sci., 45, 354–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nickerson, T.A. (1974) Lactose, in Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry, 2nd edn, (B.H. Webb, A.H. Johnson and J.A. Alford eds.) AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT, pp. 273–324.Google Scholar
  91. O’Brien, D.J., Panzer, C.C. and Eisele, W.P. (1990) Biological production of acrylic acid from cheese whey by resting cells of Clostridium propionicum. Biotechnol. Prog., 6, 237–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. O’Brien, J.M. and Morrissey, P.A. (1989) The Maillard reaction in milk products, in Monograph on Heat-Induced Changes in Milk, (P.F. Fox ed.) Bulletin 238, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 53–61.Google Scholar
  93. Olano, A. and Martinez-Castro, I. (1989) Modification and interactions of lactose, in Monograph on Heat-Induced Changes in Milk, (P.F. Fox ed.) Bulletin 238, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 35–44.Google Scholar
  94. Olano, A., Bernhard, R.A. and Nickerson, T.A. (1977) Alteration in the ratio of a-to 13-lactose co-crystallized from organic solvents. J. Food Sci., 42, 1066–8, 1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Onwulata, C.I., Smith, P.W., Craig, J.C., Jr. and Holsinger, V.H. (1994) Physical properties of encapsulated spray dried milkfat. J. Food Sci., 59, 316–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Paige, D.M. and Bayless, T.M. (eds.) (1981) Lactose Digestion: Clinical and Nutritional Implications, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 3–280.Google Scholar
  97. Pallansch, M.J. (1973) New methods for drying acid whey, in Proc. Whey Products Conf., 1972, ERRL. Publ. No. 3779, USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center, Philadelphia, pp. 100–10.Google Scholar
  98. Palumbo, M.S., Smith, P.W., Strange, E.D., et al. (1995) Stability of (3-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae and Kluyveromyces lactis in dry milk powders. J. Food Sci., 60, 117–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Patil, D.H., Westaby, D., Mahida, Y.R., et al. (1987) Comparative modes of action of lactitol and lactulose in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Gut, 28, 255–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Patton, S. (1955) Browning and associated changes in milk and its products: a review. J. Dairy Sci., 38, 457–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Peaker, M. (1980) Influence of diet on the yields and contents of lactose and minerals in milk, in Factors Affecting the Yields and Contents of Milk Constituents of Commercial Importance, (J.H. Moore and A.F. Rook eds.) Bulletin 125, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 159–63.Google Scholar
  102. Peebles, D.D. (1956) The development of instant milk. Food Technol., 10, 64–5. P.effer, P.E., Valentine, K.M. and Parrish, F.W. (1979) Deuterium-induced differential isotope shift 13C NMR. 1. Resonance reassignments of mono-and disaccharides. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1001, 1265–74.Google Scholar
  103. Pfeffer, P.E., Hicks, K.B. and Earl, W.L. (1983) Solid state structures of ketodisaccharides as probed by 13C cross-polarization “magic angle” spinning NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydrate Res., 11, 181–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pilson, M.E.Q. (1965) Absence of lactose from the milk of the Otarioidea, a super-family of marine animals. Am. Zool., 5, 220–1.Google Scholar
  105. Pilson, M.E.Q. and Kelly, A.L. (1962) Composition of the milk from Zalophus californianus, the California sea lion. Science, 135, 104–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Qadeer, M.A., Baig, M.A. and Yunus, O. (1974) Biosynthesis of calcium lactobionate by Pseudomonas species in shake flasks. Pakistan J. Biochem., VII(1), 24–8.Google Scholar
  107. Ramsdell, G.A. and Webb, B.H. (1945) The acid hydrolysis of lactose and the preparation of hydrolyzed lactose syrup. J. Dairy Sci., 28, 677–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Reimerdes, E.H. (ed.) (1990) Lactose as a Food Ingredient, Association of Lactose Manufacturers, Expoconsult Publishers, Maarssen, The Netherlands, pp. 4–55.Google Scholar
  109. Reithel, F.J. and Venkataraman, R. (1956) Lactose in the Sapotaceae. Science, 123, 1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Renner, E. (1983) Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition, V-*GmbH., Volkswirtschaftlicher Verlag, Munich, pp. 1–450.Google Scholar
  111. Richardson, R.H. and Brew, K. (1980) Lactose synthase: an investigation of the interaction site of a-lactalbumin for galactosyl transferase by differential kinetic labeling. J. Biol. Chem., 255, 3377–85.Google Scholar
  112. Roelfsema, W.A. and Kuster, B.F.M. (1988) Prospects in the chemical derivatisation of lactose. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 42, 469–83.Google Scholar
  113. Saltmarch, R., Vagnini-Ferrari, M.A. and Labuza, T.P. (1981) Theoretical basis and application of kinetics to browning in spray dried food systems. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci., 5, 331–44.Google Scholar
  114. Schaafsma, G. (1990) Physiological aspects of lactose in human nutrition, in Lactose as a Food Ingredient, ( E.H. Reimerdes ed.) Association of Lactose Manufacturers, Expoconsult Publishers, Maarssen, The Netherlands, pp. 13–19.Google Scholar
  115. Scholnick, F. and Pfeffer, P.E. (1980) Iron chelating capacity of gluconamides and lactobionamides. J. Dairy Sci., 63, 471–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schwartz, R.D. (1987) Biopolymers from whey, in Trends in Whey Utilization, Bulletin 212, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 56–61.Google Scholar
  117. Sharp, P.F. and Doob, H. Jr. (1941) Quantitative determination of a-and (3-lactose in dried milk and dried whey. J. Dairy Sci., 24, 589–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Short, J.L. (1978) Prospects for the utilization of deproteinated whey in New Zealand — a review. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci, Technol., 13, 181–94.Google Scholar
  119. Singh, R.K., Shah, B.B., Nielsen, S.S. and Chambers, J.V. (1991) a-Lactose monohydrate from ultrafiltered whey permeate in one-step crystallization using ethanol-water mixtures. J. Food Sci.,56 777–81, 788.Google Scholar
  120. Smart, J.B. (1993) Transferase reactions of 13-galactosidases — new product opportunities, in Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 16–22.Google Scholar
  121. Solvay Deutschland GmBh (1994) Lactobionic acid and derivatives, Forschung und Entwicklung, Technical Information Brochure, Hannover, Germany.Google Scholar
  122. Somkuti, G.A. and Steinberg, D.H. (1990) Lactose hydrolyis by lactose transport system defective (lacS) Streptococcus thermophilus. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 12, 351–6.Google Scholar
  123. Somkuti, G.A. and Steinberg, D.H. (1991) Lactose hydrolysis by mutant Streptococcus thermophilus. US Patent 5, 071, 763.Google Scholar
  124. Somkuti, G.A. and Steinberg, D.H. (1993) Lactose hydrolysis by mutant Streptococcus thermophilus. US Patent 5, 198, 351.Google Scholar
  125. Somkuti, G.A. and Steinberg, D.H. (1994) Permeabilization of Streptococcus thermophilus and the expression of beta-galactosidase. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 16, 357–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stewart, R.E.A., Webb, B.E., Lavinge, D.M. and Fletcher, F. (1983) Determining lactose content of harp seal milk. Can. J. Zool., 61, 1094–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stinnakre, M.G., Vilotte, J.L., Soulier, S. and Mercier, J.C. (1994) Creation and phenotypic analysis of a-lactalbumin-deficient mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91, 6544–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sumimoto, R. and Kamada, N. (1990) Lactobionate as the most important component in UW solution for liver preservation. Transplant. Proc., 22, 2198–9.Google Scholar
  129. Tamsma, A., Kontson, A., Sutton, C. and Pallansch, M.J. (1972) Production of non-hygroscopic foam-spray dried cottage cheese whey. J. Dairy Sci., 55, 667.Google Scholar
  130. Tamura, Y., Mizota, T., Shimamura, S. and Tornita, M. (1993) Lactulose and its application to the food and pharmaceutical industries, in Lactose Hydrolysis, Bulletin 289, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 43–53.Google Scholar
  131. Thelwall, L.A.W. (1985) Developments in the chemistry and chemical modification of lactose, in Developments in Dairy Chemistry —3— Lactose and Minor Constituents, ( P.E. Fox ed.) Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 35–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thompson, M.P., Farrell, H.M., Mohanam, S., et al. (1992) Identification of human milk a-lactalbumin as a cell growth inhibitor. Protoplasma, 167, 134–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Toba, T., Yokota, A. and Adachi, S. (1985) Oligosaccharide structures formed during the hydrolysis of lactose by Aspergillus oryzae ß-galactosidase. Food Chem., 16, 147–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Troy, H.C. and Sharp, P.F. (1930) Alpha and beta lactose in some milk products. J. Dairy Sci., 13, 140–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Trucco, R.E., Verdier, P. and Rega, A. (1954) New carbohydrate compounds from cow milk. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 15, 852–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. US Food and Drug Administration (1993) PURAC biochim b.v.; filing of petition for affirmation of GRAS status (lactitol). Fed. Reg., 58, 47746.Google Scholar
  137. van Velthuijsen, J.A. (1979) Food additives derived from lactose: lactitol and lactitol palmitate. J. Agric. Food Chem., 27, 680–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Walstra, P. and Jenness, R. (1984) Dairy Chemistry and Physics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 27–41.Google Scholar
  139. Webb, B.H. (1970) Condensed products, in Byproducts from Milk, 2nd edn, (B.H. Webb and E.O. Whittier eds.) AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT, pp. 83–123.Google Scholar
  140. Wessinger, E.W., O’Brien, D.J. and Kurantz, M.J. (1990) Identification of fungi for sweet whey permeate utilization and eicosapentaenoic acid production. J. Industrial Microbiol., 6, 191–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wheadon, M. Goulding, A., Barbezat, G.O. and Campbell, A.J. (1991) Lactose malabsorption and calcium intake as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly New Zealand women. N.Z. Med. J.,104(921) 417–19.Google Scholar
  142. Whittier, E.O. (1944) Lactose and its utilization: a review. J. Dairy Sci., 27, 50537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Woychik, J.H. (1982) Whey and lactose, in CRC Handbook of Processing and Utilization in Agriculture. Vol. I. Animal Products, ( I.A. Wolff ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 431–43.Google Scholar
  144. Wright, D.G. and Rand, A.G. (1973) Direct enzymatic conversion of lactose to acid: lactose dehydrogenase. J. Food Sci., 38, 1132–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yanahira, S., Suguri, T., Yakabe, T., et al. (1992) Formation of oligosaccharides from lactitol by Aspergillus oryzae ß-D-galactosidase. Carbohydr. Res., 232, 151–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Young, S.L., Sarda, X. and Rosenberg, M. (1993) Microencapsulating properties of whey protein. 1. Microencapsulation of anhydrous milkfat. J. Dairy Sci., 76, 2868–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zadow, J.G. (1984) Lactose: properties and uses. J. Dairy Sci., 67, 2654–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zadow, J.G. (1986) Utilisation of milk components: whey, in Modern Dairy Technology, Advances in Milk Processing, Vol 1, ( R.K. Robinson ed.) ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  149. Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 273–316.Google Scholar
  150. Zadow, J.G. (1991) Lactose utilization, in CSIRO Food Research Quarterly, 51(1 2 ), 99–106.Google Scholar
  151. Ziegler, E.E. and Foman, S.J. (1983) Lactose enhances mineral absorption in infancy. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 2, 288–94.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. H. Holsinger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations