The Transmission Electron Microscope

  • Earl J. Kirkland


The modern transmission electron microscope has evolved over most of this century into a rather complex instrument. The Conventional Transmission Electron Microscope (CTEM) was first invented in the early 1930’s by Knoll and Ruskal6 as an extension of earlier work to perfect the oscilloscope. Early microscopes had a resolution that was no better than a light microscope but there was considerable speculation at the time that atomic resolution should be possible. These speculations have been realized in current commercial instruments. For his work on the CTEM, Ruska shared the 1986 Nobel prize in physics with G. Binnig and H. Rohrer for their invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) was invented shortly after the CTEM in the late 1930’s by von Ardenne17. The utility of the STEM was greatly increased in the late 1960’s by Crewels et al with the addition of a cold field emission gun (FEG) source with a small source size and high brightness. The beginning chapters of Heidenreich19 or Ha1120 and the two contributed volumes edited by Hawkes21 and Mulvey22 have a more complete historical discussion of the transmission electron microscope.


Objective Lens Scan Transmission Electron Microscope Spherical Aberration Electron Trajectory Conventional Transmission Electron Micro 
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Further Reading

Some Books on Electron Microscopy

  1. 1.
    P.R. Buseck, J.M. Cowley and L. Eyring, edit., High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy,Oxford Univ. Press, 198849 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.K. Bowen and C. R. Hall, Microscopy of Materials,MacMillan Press, 197550 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. W. Edington, Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science,Van Nostrand Reinhold, 197651 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. E. Hall,Introduction to Electron Microscopy,2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, 196620 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. W. Hawkes, Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope,Taylor and Francis, 197252 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.D. Heidenreich, Fundamentals of Transmission Electron Microscopy,Wiley, 196419 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Hirsch, A. Howie, R. B. Nicholson, D. W. Pashley, M. J. Whelan, Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals, second edition,Krieger, 197753 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Horiuchi, Fundamentals of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy,North-Holland, 199454 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. A. Meek, Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists, second edition,Wiley, 197655 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Reimer, Transmission Electron Microscopy, third edition, Springer-Verlag,199356 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Reimer, Scanning Electron Microscopy,Springer-Verlag, 198557 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. M. Siegel and D. R. Beaman, edit., Physical Aspects of Electron Microscopy and Microbeam Analysis,Wiley, 197558 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.C. H. Spence, Experimental High-Resolution Electron Microscopy,Oxford University Press, 198159 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. B. Williams and C. B. Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy, A Textbook for Materials Science,Plenum Press, 199660 Google Scholar

Some Books on Electron Optics

  1. 1.
    P. Grivet,Electron Optics, Parts 1 and 2, 2nd english edition, Pergamon, 197261 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. W. Hawkes and E. Kasper, Principles of Electron Optics, Vol. 1,2,3,Academic Press,1989, 199410,11,36 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. Klemperer and M. E. Barnett, Electron Optics, third edition,Cambridge Univ. Press, 197162 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. B. El-Kareh and J. C. J. El-Kareh,Electron Beams Lenses and Optics Vol. 12, Academic Press, 197063 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Septier, editor, Applied Charged Particle Optics,in: Adv. in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 13A,B, Academic Press, 198064 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. K. Zworykin, G. A. Morton, E. G. Ramberg, J. Hillier, A. W. Vance, Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope, Wiley, 194565 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Earl J. Kirkland 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Earl J. Kirkland
    • 1
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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