Limitations of Nontransplant Treatment Options for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

  • David M. Kendall
  • Richard M. Bergenstal


For decades clinicians have recognized that elevations in blood glucose are clearly associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications of diabetes—including retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Prior to 1993, however, no intervention trial had successfully demonstrated that intensive treatment of blood glucose could significantly reduce the risk of these complications. With the publication of the landmark Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) in 1993,1 it was confirmed that intensive therapy could indeed reduce the risk of the secondary complications, and intensive therapy has subsequently become the standard of care for virtually all patients with type 1 diabetes.


Diabetes Control Insulin Glargine Basal Insulin Insulin Analog Intensive Therapy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Kendall
  • Richard M. Bergenstal

There are no affiliations available

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