Epilogue: Physics, Skiing, and the Future

  • David A. Lind
  • Scott P. Sanders


In a sense, the speed and intensity of today’s research and development efforts regarding the physical properties of ski manufacturing materials and ski design have brought the future much closer to us. Skiers who use the latest equipment built for the current season are, in relation to the many more skiers on the hill whose equipment is even just a few years old, the skiers of the future. They use skis made of composite materials designed specifically to address the flexural, torsional, and vibrational demands of skiing, and those skis are designed into special shapes and contours that promote enhanced glide and ever tighter turns made ever faster and carved with ever greater control.


Tight Turn Skating Technique Late Equipment Diagonal Stride Recreational Skier 
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  1. 1.
    Interested readers should see L. R. Young and S. M. Lee, “Alpine Injury Pattern at Waterville Valley, 1989 Update,” in Ski Trauma and Safety: Eighth International Symposium, ASTM STP 1104 (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1991), pp. 125–132, which offers tables that show the distribution of injuries for beginner, intermediate, and expert skiers. The incidence of knee injury is the highest for all three classes.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Interested readers will find much detailed information on this topic in J. M. Figueras, F. Escalas, A. Vidal, R. Morgenstern, J. M. Bulo, J. A. Merino, and J. M. Espadaler-Gamisans, “The Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Skiers,” in Ski Trauma and Safety: Sixth International Symposium, ASTM STP 938 (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1987), pp. 55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 2a.
    see also C. Y. Kuo, J. K. Louie, and C. D. Mote, “Control of Torsion and Bending of the Lower Extremity During Skiing,” in Ski Trauma and Safety: Fifth International Symposium, ASTM STP 860 (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1985), pp. 91–109. The discussion that follows derives from the work presented in these sources.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 3.
    See the work of C. F. Ettlinger and his colleagues at Vermont Safety Research, PO Box 85, Underhill Center, VT 05490 for specific information on “skiing so as to avoid injury.” See also C. F. Ettlinger, R. J. Johnson, and J. E. Shealey, “A Method to Help Reduce the Risk of Serious Knee Sprains Incurred in Alpine Skiing,” Am. J. of Sports Med. 23(5), pp. 531–537 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 4.
    This example is drawn from the work of J. M. Figueras, et al. cited in Ref. 2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Lind
    • 1
  • Scott P. Sanders
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

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