COmponents of the 2f1-f2-Distortion Product in the Ear Canal of the Bobtail Lizard

  • Geoffrey A. Manley
  • Christine Köppl
  • Brian M. Johnstone
Part of the Lecture Notes in Biomathematics book series (LNBM, volume 87)


Cubic distortion products (DP) in the sound field of the external auditory meatus have measured at several levels in a variety of species (e.g., Brown, 1987; Kemp and Brown, 1983, 1984, 1986; Kim et al., 1980; Lonsbury-Martin et al., 1987; Martin et al., 1987; Rosowski et al., 1984; Schmiedt and Adams, 1981; Schmiedt and Addy, 1982; Wilson, 1980; Zurek et al., 1982). The hearing organ processes acoustic stimuli which can differ enormously with reference to their sound pressure. As the ear is made up of a number of structures with different degrees of inherent nonlinearity, it is not surprising to find that the amount of distortion measurable is not only level dependent, but originates from a variety of sources (e.g., Brown, 1987; Kim et al., 1981; Rosowski et al., 1984; Whitehead et al., 1990). The distortion output in the ear canal resulting from these different sources depends in a complex way on the frequency, frequency ratio, level, and phase of the primary tones fed to the ear.


Hair Cell Primary Level Distortion Product Basilar Papilla Hearing Organ 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoffrey A. Manley
    • 1
  • Christine Köppl
    • 1
  • Brian M. Johnstone
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für ZoologieTechnical UniversityMunichGermany
  2. 2.Dept. of PhysiologyUniversity of W. AustraliaPerth.Australia

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