Flotation Surfactants

  • S. Ramachandra Rao


Numerous inorganic and organic reagents are employed in flotation for the purpose of controlling the characteristics of interfaces. Any species, whether organic or inorganic in nature, which has a tendency to concentrate at one of the five possible interfaces (such as liquid/gas, liquid/liquid, solid/liquid, solid/gas, solid/solid) is a surface active agent. An ion is thus a surface active agent with respect to an oppositely charged surface site. The name surfactantsis reserved for surface active amphipaticmolecules, R-Z (that is, molecules of dual character), represented by a polar group Z and a nonpolar group R. The polar group Z consists of an aggregate of two or more atoms which are covalently bonded but possess a permanent dipole moment; the presence of this dipole makes the group hydrophilic in character. In addition to the dipole, the polar group may (but need not) be ionized. The nonpolar group R is usually represented by a hydrocarbon (but it may be a fluorocarbon or a siloxane). It has no permanent dipole and represents the hydrophobic part of the amphipatic molecule.


Polar Group Ethylene Oxide Alkyl Sulfate Xanthic Acid Alkyl Sulfonate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Ramachandra Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.McGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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