Ecological Benefits of Contaminated Sediment Remediation

  • Michael A. Zarull
  • John H. Hartig
  • Gail Krantzberg
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 174)


Sediments contaminated with nutrients, metals, organics, and oxygen-demanding substances can be found in freshwater and marine systems throughout the world. Although some of these contaminants occur in elevated concentrations as a result of natural processes, the presence of many results from human activity. Aquatic sediments with elevated levels of contaminants can be found in any low-energy area that is the recipient of water associated with urban, industrial, or agricultural activity. Such low-energy depositional zones can be found in nearshore embayments and river mouth areas and are also likely to be ecologically significant. These nearshore areas frequently represent the most significant spawning and nursery sites for many species of fish, the nesting and feeding areas for most of the aquatic avian fauna, the areas of highest primary and secondary biological productivity, and the areas of greatest human contact.


United States Environmental Protection Agency Ecological Risk Assessment Coke Plant Environ Toxicol Tree Swallow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allan RJ (1986) The Role of Particulate Matter in the Fate of Contaminants in Aquatic Ecosystems. IWD Scientific Series No. 142, Burlington, Ontario.Google Scholar
  2. Adams WJ, Kimerle RA, Mosher RG (1985) Aquatic safety assessments of chemicals sorbed to sediments. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Aquatic Toxicology Symposium, Milwaukee, WI, pp 429–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Augenfield JM, Anderson JW (1982) The fate of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in an intertidal sediment exposure system: bioavailability to Macoma inquinata (Mollusa: Pelecyopoda) and Abarenicola pacifica ( Annelida: Polychaeta). Mar Environ Res 7: 31–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baumann PC, Harshbarger JC (1995) Decline in liver neoplasms in wild brown bullhead catfish after coking plant closes and environmental PAHs plummet. Environ Health Perspect 103: 168–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumann PC, Harshbarger (1998) Long term trends in liver neoplasm epizootics of brown bullhead in the Black River, Ohio. Environ Monit Assess 53: 213–223.Google Scholar
  6. Baumann PC, Smith WD, Ribick M (1982) Hepatic tumor rates and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon levels in two populations of brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus). In: Cook MW, Dennis AJ, Fisher GL (eds) Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Sixth International Symposium on Physical and Biological Chemistry. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, pp 93–102.Google Scholar
  7. Bengtsson L, Fleischer G, Lindmark G, Ripl W (1975) Lake Trummen restoration project I. water and sediment chemistry. Verh Int Verein Limnol 19: 1080–1087.Google Scholar
  8. Bishop CA, Brooks RJ, Carey JH, Ng P, Norstrom RJ, Lean DRS (1991) The case for a cause-effect linkage between environmental contamination and development in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra s. serpentina) from Ontario, Canada. J Toxicol Environ Health 33: 521–547.Google Scholar
  9. Bishop CA, Koster MD, Chek AA, Hussell DJT, Jock K (1995) Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoneniceus), and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. Environ Toxicol Chem 14: 491–501.Google Scholar
  10. Bishop CA, Mahony NA, Trudeau S, Pettit KE (1999) Reproductive success and biochemical effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in wetlands of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin, USA and Canada. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 263–271.Google Scholar
  11. Bishop CA, Ng P, Pettit KE, Kennedy SW, Stegeman JJ, Norstrom RJ, Brooks RJ (1998) Environmental contamination and development abnormalities in eggs and hatchlings of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence River Basin (1989–91). Environ Pollut 101: 143–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonin J, DesGranges JL, Bishop CA, Rodriguez, Gendron A (1995) Comparative study of contaminants in the mudpuppy (Amphibia) and the common snapping turtle (Reptilia), St. Lawrence River, Canada. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 28: 184–194.Google Scholar
  13. Burton GA Jr (ed) (1992) Sediment Toxicity Assessment. Lewis, Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
  14. Cairns J Jr (2000) Setting ecological restoration goals for technical feasibility and scientific validity. Ecol Eng 15: 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapman PM, Fink R (1984) Effects of Puget Sound sediments and their elutriates on the life cycle of Capitella capita. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 33: 451–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen W, Kan AT, Fu G, Vignona LC, Tomson MB (1999) Adsorption-desorption behaviors of hydrophobic organic compounds in sediments of Lake Charles, Louisiana, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 1610–1616.Google Scholar
  17. Cronberg G, Gelin C, Larsson K (1975) Lake Trummen restoration project II. Bacteria, phytoplankton and phytoplankton productivity. Verh Int Verein Limnol 19: 1088–1096.Google Scholar
  18. Elder JF, James RV, Steuer JJ (1996) Mobility of 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl in model systems containing bottom sediments and water from the lower Fox River, Wisconsin. J Great Lakes Res 22: 697–706.Google Scholar
  19. Forstner U, Whittman GTW (1979) Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment. Springer, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gannon JE, Beeton AM (1971) Procedures for determining the effects of dredged sediments on biota—benthos viability and sediment selectivity tests. J Water Pollut Control Fed 43: 392–398.Google Scholar
  21. Gendron AD, Bishop CA, Fortin R, Hontela A (1997) In vitro testing of the functional integrity of the corticosterone-producing axis in mudpuppy (Amphibia) exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbons in the wild. Environ Toxicol Chem 16: 1694–1706.Google Scholar
  22. Giesy JP, Hoke RA (1989) Freshwater sediment toxicity bioassessment: rationale for species selection and test design. J Great Lakes Res 15: 539–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harder HW, Carter TV, Bidleman TF (1983) Acute effects of toxaphene and its sedi- ment-degraded products on estuarine fish. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 40: 2119–2125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harding LW, Phillips JH (1978) Polychlorinated biphenyls: transfer from microparticulates to marine phytoplankton and the effects on photosynthesis. Science 202: 1189–1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hartig JH, Zarull MA (1991) Methods of restoring degraded areas in the Great Lakes. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 117: 127–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoffman DJ, Heinz GH, Sileo L, Audet DJ, Campbell JK, LeCaptain LJ (2000) Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallard ducklings. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 39: 221–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoke RA, Prater BL (1980) Relationship of percent mortality of four species of aquatic biota from 96-hour sediment bioassays of five Lake Michigan harbors and elutriate chemistry of the sediments. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 25: 394–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hosokawa Y (1993) Remediation work for mercury contaminated bay: experiences of Bay Project, Japan. Water Sci Technol 28: 339–348.Google Scholar
  29. Ingersoll CG, Dillon T, Biddinger GR (eds) (1997) Ecological Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. SETAC Pellston Workshop on Sediment Ecological Risk Assessment. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL.Google Scholar
  30. International Joint Commission (IJC) (1999) Protecting what has been gained in the Black River. A report on a public symposium held in Lorain, Ohio, October 8, 1998. IJC, Windsor, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  31. Ishikawa T, Ikegaki Y (1980) Control of mercury pollution in Japan and the Minamata Bay cleanup. J Water Pollut Control Fed 52: 1013–1018.Google Scholar
  32. Kaag NHBM, Foekema EM, Scholten MCT (1998) Ecotoxicity of contaminated sediments, a matter of bioavailability. Water Sci Technol 37: 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kay SH (1984) Potential for biomagnification of contaminants within marine and freshwater food webs. Technical Report D-84–7. Department of the Army, Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS.Google Scholar
  34. Krantzberg G, Reynoldson T, Jaagumagi R, Bedard D, Painter S, Boyd D, Pawson T (2000) SEDS: setting environmental decisions for sediment, a decision making tool for sediment management. Aquat Ecosyst Health Manage 3: 387–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krezovich JP, Harrison FL, Wilhelm RG (1987) The bioavailability of sediment-sorbed organic chemicals: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 32: 233–245.Google Scholar
  36. Kudo A, Fujikawa Y, Miyahara S, Zheng J, Takigami H, Sugahara M, Muramatsu T (1998) Lessons from Minamata mercury pollution, Japan: after a continuous 22 years of observation. Water Sci Technol 38: 187–193.Google Scholar
  37. Larsen DP, Malueg KW, Schults D, Brice RM (1975) Response of eutrophic Shagawa Lake, Minnesota, U.S.A., to point-source, phosphorus reduction. Verh Int Verein Limnol 19: 884–892.Google Scholar
  38. Lower WR, Yanders AF, Marrero TR, Underbring AG, Drobner VK, Collins MD (1985) Mutagenicity of bottom sediment From a water reservoir. Environ Toxicol Chem 4: 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Malins DC, McCain BB, Brown DW, Varanasi U, Krahn MM, Myers MS, Chan SL (1984) Sediment-associated contaminants and liver diseases in bottom-dwelling fish. Hydrobiologia 149: 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Malueg KW, Schuytema GS, Gakstatter JH, Krawczyk DF (1983) Effect of Hexagenia on Daphnia responses in sediment toxicity tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2: 73–82.Google Scholar
  41. Mason RP, Lawrence AL (1999) Concentration, distribution, and bioavailability of mercury and methylmercury in sediments of Baltimore Harbor and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 2438–2447.Google Scholar
  42. Milbrink G (1983) Characteristic deformities in tubificid oligochaetes inhabiting polluted bays of Lake Vanern, southern Sweden. Hydrobiologia 106: 169–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mohlenberg F, Kiorboe T (1983) Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment. Mar Pollut Bull 14: 57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nakayama Y, Nakai O, Nanba T, Kyuumak K (1996) Effect of the Minamata Bay environment restoration project. Proceedings, 17th US/Japan Experts Meeting: Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances, 12–14 March, 1996, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  45. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983) Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  46. Nau-Ritter GM, Wurster CF (1983) Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs) to clay particulates and effects of desorption on phytoplankton. Water Res 17: 383–387.Google Scholar
  47. Peterson SA (1982) Lake restoration by sediment removal. Water Res Bull 18: 423–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Powers CD, Nau-Ritter GM, Rowland RG, Wurster CF (1982) Field and laboratory studies of the toxicity to phytoplankton of polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs) desorbed from fine clays and natural suspended particulates. J Great Lakes Res 8: 350–357.Google Scholar
  49. Prater BL, Anderson MA (1977a) A 96-hour bioassay of Otter Creek, Ohio. J Water Pollut Control Fed 49: 2099–22106.Google Scholar
  50. Prater BL, Anderson MA (1977b) A 96-hour sediment bioassay of Duluth and Superior Harbor basins (Minnesota) using Hexagenia lamboidea, Assails communis, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas as test organisms. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 18: 159–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reichert WL, Le Eberhart BT, Varanasi U (1985) Exposure of two species of deposit-feeding amphipods to sediment-associated [3H] benzo[a]pyrene: uptake, metabolism, and covalent binding to tissue macromolecules. Aquat Toxicol 3: 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roesijadi G, Anderson JW, Blaylock JW (1978a) Uptake of hydrocarbons from marine sediments contaminated with Prudhoe Bay crude oil: influence of feeding type of test species and availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Fish Res Board Can 35: 608–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roesijadi G, Woodruff DL, Anderson JW (1978b) Bioavailability of napthalenes from marine sediments artificially contaminated with Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Environ Pol-lut 15: 223–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Russell RW, Gobas RAPC, Haffner GD (1999) Role of chemical and ecological factors in trophic transfer of organic chemicals in aquatic food web. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 1250–1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Salamons W, Forstner U (1984) Metals in the Hydrocycle. Springer, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Secord AL, McCarty JP, Echols KR, Meadows JC, Gale RW, Tillitt DE (1999) Polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in tree swallows from the upper Hudson River, New York State, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 2519–2525.Google Scholar
  57. Suter GW II (1997) Overview of the ecological risk assessment framework. In: Ingersoll CG, Dillon T, Biddinger GR (eds) Ecological Risk Assessments of Contaminated Sediments. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp 1–6.Google Scholar
  58. Tagatz ME, Plaia GR, Deans CH (1985) Effects of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene on estuarine macrobenthic communities exposed via water and sediment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 10: 351–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1998) EPA’s contaminated sediment management strategy. EPA-823-R-98–001. USEPA Office of Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  60. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1989) Risk assessment guidance for Superfund. Volume 1. Human health evaluation manual. Part A. Interim final. EPA/540/1–89/002. USEPA, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  61. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2000) Bioaccumulation testing and interpretation for the purpose of sediment quality assessment: status and needs. EPA-823-R-00–001. USEPA Office of Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  62. Urabe S (1993) Outline of mercury sediment work in Minamata Bay. Proceedings of the 16th U.S./Japan Experts Meeting: Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances, 12–14 October, 1993, Kitukyushu, Japan.Google Scholar
  63. Warwick WF (1980) Paleolimnology of the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario: 2800 years of cultural influence. Can Bull Fish Aquat Sci 206: 1–117.Google Scholar
  64. West WR, Smith PA, Booth GM, Lee ML (1986) Determination and genotoxicity of nitrogen heterocycles in a sediment from the Black River. Environ Toxicol Chem 5: 511–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wiederholm T (1984) Incidence of deformed chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Swedish lakes. Hydrobiologia 109: 243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Zarull
    • 1
  • John H. Hartig
    • 2
  • Gail Krantzberg
    • 3
  1. 1.The United Nations University, International Network on Water, Environment and HealthMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Greater Detroit American Heritage River Initiative, U.S. Coast GuardMarine Safety OfficeDetroitUSA
  3. 3.International Joint CommissionGreat Lakes Regional OfficeWindsorCanada

Personalised recommendations