Rat Milk Decreases Necrotizing Enterocolitis in a Rat Model

  • Bohuslav Dvorak
  • Melissa D. Halpern
  • Hana Holubec
  • Katerina Dvorakova
  • Jessica A. Dominguez
  • Catherine S. Williams
  • Yolanda G. Meza
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 554)

Abstract

Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common and devastating gastrointestinal tract (GI) disease of prematurely born infants. The pathogenesis of NEC is unknown, but intestinal immaturity, enteral feeding, intestinal hypoxia/ischemia, and bacterial colonization are considered the major risk factors for development of NEC (Caplan & Jilling 2001). Clinical studies indicate that human milk, which provides hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and nucleotides that facilitate maturation of the intestinal mucosal barrier and other essential intestinal functions, plays a protective role against this disease (Schanler 2001; Lucas & Cole 1990). However, factor(s) responsible for the protective effect remain to be identified. We have shown that supplementation of formula with epidermal growth factor (EGF), a peptide normally present in human milk but absent in infant formula, is highly protective against NEC in a rat experimental model (Dvorak et al. 2002; Crissinger 1995). In this model, NEC is induced in neonatal rats via enteral feeding of cow milk-based formula coupled with asphyxia and cold stress. Using this method, approximately 80% of neonatal rats develop NEC within 4 days (Dvorak et al. 2002; Halpern et al. 2002). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of artificial feeding of rat milk versus cow milk-based formula on development of NEC in a neonatal rat model.

Keywords

Cold Stress Human Milk Enteral Feeding Artificial Feeding Physiol Gastrointest Liver 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Caplan MS, Jilling T. New concepts in necrotizing enterocolitis. Curr Opin Pediatr 2001;13:111–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Crissinger KD. Animal models of necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;20:17–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Dvorak B, Halpern MD, Holubec H, Williams CS, McWilliam DL, Dominguez JA, Stepankova R, Payne CM, McCuskey RS. Epidermal growth factor reduces the development of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002;282:G156–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Halpern MD, Holubec H, Dominguez JA, Williams CS, Meza YG, McWilliam DL, Payne CM, McCuskey RS, Besselsen DG, Dvorak B. Upregulation of IL-18 and IL-12 in the ileum of neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res 2002;51:733–739.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Lucas A, Cole TJ. Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis. Lancet 1990;336:1519–1523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Schanler RJ. The use of human milk for premature infants. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001;48:207–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bohuslav Dvorak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Melissa D. Halpern
    • 1
  • Hana Holubec
    • 3
  • Katerina Dvorakova
    • 3
  • Jessica A. Dominguez
    • 1
  • Catherine S. Williams
    • 1
  • Yolanda G. Meza
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cell Biology & AnatomyUniversity of ArizonaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology & ImmunologyUniversity of ArizonaUSA

Personalised recommendations