Higher Molecular Mass Forms of TGFα in Human Milk

  • Carol L. Wagner
  • John E. Baatz
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 554)


Transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) has been identified in human milk by various methods, including Western blot analysis (Peptrides et al. 1984; Okada et al. 1991; Connolly & Rose 1988; Wagner et al. 1995). Human milk has been reported to contain higher molecular mass moieties of TGFα (Okada et al. 1991; Wagner et al. 1995), well above the 22-kD form that is predicted from primary translational production (Qian et al. 1993). Okada et al. (1991), in their study of TGFa fractions in human milk, reported that the majority of TGFα in aqueous samples eluted by Sephadex G-50 gel chromatography was of higher molecular mass than the -6-kD mature form. There are numerous reports in other organ systems of higher molecular mass bands appearing that are immuno-reactive with TGFα. In the past, these higher molecular mass bands have been attributed to nonspecific binding (Humphreys-Beher et al. 1994). To verify the existence of higher molecular mass TGFa moieties in human milk, a series of experiments were performed in our laboratory.


Milk Sample Human Milk High Molecular Mass Aqueous Fraction Sodium Taurocholate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Connolly JM, Rose DP. Epidermal growth factor-like proteins in breast fluid and human milk. Life Sci 1988;42:1751–1756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Humphreys-Beher MG, Macauley SP, Chegini N, van Setten G, Purushotham K, Stewart C, Wheeler TT, Schultz GS. Characterization of the synthesis and secretion of transforming growth factor-alpha from salivary glands and saliva. Endocrinology 1994;134:963–970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Okada M, Ohmura E, Kamiya Y, Murakami H, Onoda N, Iwashita M, Wakai K, Tsushima T, Shizume K. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha in human milk. Life Sci 1991;48:1151–1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Peptrides PE, Hosang M, Shooter EM, Bohlen P. Transforming growth factors in human milk: isolation and partial chemical and biological characterization. Proceedings of the 7th International Congress for Endocrinology, 1984; pp 1139.Google Scholar
  5. Qian JF, Lazar-Wesley E, Breugnot C, May E. Human transforming growth factor alpha: sequence analysis of the 4.5-kb and 1.6-kb mRNA species. Gene 1993;132:291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Wagner CL, Forsythe DW, Pittard WB. Variation in the biochemical forms of transforming growth factor-alpha present in human milk and secreted by human milk macrophages. Biol Neonate 1995;68:325–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol L. Wagner
    • 1
  • John E. Baatz
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Neonatology, Department of PediatricsMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations