Influence of Recent Dietary Intake on Plasma and Human Milk Levels of Carotenoids and Retinol in Brazilian Nursing Women
Retinol concentration in human milk is considered a better indicator of changes in maternal vitamin A status than serum levels (Rice et al. 2000). Carotenoid distribution pattern and concentrations in human milk vary widely worldwide and may be related to the characteristics of the local diet (Canfield et al. 2002). Although carotenoid concentrations in plasma may be used as biomarkers of dietary intake, correlations for individual carotenoids vary substantially (El-Sohemy et al. 2002). Supplementation of lactating women with single doses of vitamin A and β-carotene, in amounts several times higher than those obtained through daily dietary intake, increases plasma and milk levels of the respective nutrient (Stoltzfus et al. 1993; Canfield et al. 1997). However, the responses of retinol concentration in human milk and of carotenoid concentrations in both maternal plasma and milk to short-term changes in dietary intake have not been evaluated.
KeywordsDietary Intake Human Milk Lactate Woman Carotenoid Concentration Maternal Vitamin
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