Protection of Breastfeeding, Marketing of Human Milk Substitutes and Ethics

  • M. F. Rea
  • F. F. Marcolino
  • A. J. Colameo
  • L. A. Trevellin
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 554)

Abstract

Although human milk provides adequate nutrition, many children are weaned early and fed human milk substitutes. Breastfeeding replacement by commercial infant formula represents an important source of profit generation for formula manufacturers. Therefore, selling and marketing these products are planned carefully as mothers stop breastfeeding. The World Health Organization (WHO) established an International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1981 (WHO-UNICEF 1981) [Fig. 1]. These WHO standards have been in effect in Brazil since 1988, and were revised twice: in 1992 (NBCAL 1992) and in 2002. The Code provides one special article dealing with Health Workers (Article 7), in which rules for ethical procedures of infant formula companies are defined. The Brazilian Code was disseminated to pediatricians by professional associations and the Minister of Health. Copies of the Code also were distributed to pediatricians by the largest infant food company in Brazil, indicating how the company interprets the national Code.

Keywords

Infant Formula International Code Company Representative Milk Substitute Paulo City 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. [IBFAN] International Baby Food Action Network. Breaking the Rules, 2001. Penang, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  2. [NBCAL] Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes. Resolution 31/92 of October 1992, Minister of Health, Brazil (Code second version; revised).Google Scholar
  3. Sokol E. The Code Handbook. International Code Documentation Centre, IBFAN Penang, Malaysia, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. [WHO/UNICEF] International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. F. Rea
    • 1
  • F. F. Marcolino
    • 1
  • A. J. Colameo
    • 1
  • L. A. Trevellin
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Saude, Coordination of Institutes of ResearchSecretaria de Estado da Saude de São PauloBrazil

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