Gastroesophageal Reflux, Esophageal Transit, Gastric Emptying, and Pulmonary Aspiration

  • Sydney Heyman


Gastroesophageal reflux refers to the presence of gastric contents within the esophagus and includes rumination and “spitting up.” Vomiting implies a more active process with forceful contractions of the stomach. The known causes for vomiting should be excluded, such as an anatomic or functional obstruction of the gastric outlet or bowel, when patients with reflux are evaluated. Vomiting is a frequently described symptom in infants with reflux, but it is less common in older children and adults, likely a reflection of the limited capacity of the esophagus in small patients. Vomiting and reflux may thus be difficult to distinguish in small children. In the individual patient it may also be difficult to determine if reflux is pathologic. Small amounts of reflux certainly occur as a normal physiologic event. In these instances the infants appear well, are thriving, and usually respond to simple measures, such as thickening of the feeding or nursing in an upright position.


Gastric Emptying Gastroesophageal Reflux Lower Esophageal Sphincter Reflux Esophagitis Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sydney Heyman

There are no affiliations available

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