Hydrocephalus

  • Anthony J. Raimondi

Abstract

In his work, the seats and causes of diseases investigated by anatomy, G.B. Morgagni, in 1761, called attention to the fact that the earlier investigators of increased cranio-cerebral size did not have particularly clear ideas as to where beneath the skin the fluid present in hydrocephalus was located 1. Specifically, pathologist, anatomist, and clinical pathologist, were dubious as to whether the fluid was located beneath the skin, beneath the skull, beneath the dura, or within the brain itself. By and large, it is safe to assume that the anatomists and physicians prior to Vesalius were of the mind that the fluid accumulated beneath the scalp. Indeed, Vesalius2 was apparently the first to give a clear description of internal hydrocephalus by stating that, “Galen declared that this shape of the skull may be imagined to come from another world but not to exist in the nature which surrounds us. A boy was seen by me in Venice, one deformed and insane, with an enormous and mis-shapened head. Also, there was a beggar in Bologna with a square head which is wider than it is long. A beggarwoman in Genoa carries about a little boy as she goes from door to door, and gives him to comedians who would use him in their show to illustrate a head which is larger than the two comedians heads together! It is my own thought that the boy suffers the same disease I first observed in Augsburg in a little girl who, at the age of seven months, had a head larger than that of any man I had ever seen. The disease I am describing was called hydrocephalus by the ancients because of the water which collected within the head but, in this child, the water did not collect outside of the skull and beneath the surrounding membranes nor did it collect within the skin—as most medical books teach—but, within the center of the brain itself, in the right and left ventricles of the brain. The depths and the breadths of these ventricles so increased, and the brain was so very swollen that they contained 9 lbs. of water, or 3 Augsburgs wine measures (so help me God!). Just as the brain itself at the vertex was membrane-like in thinness indistinguishable from its own membraneous coverings so was the skull membraneous, but the base of the skull was in harmony with that of the young child before her head took on abnormal proportions. The cerebellum and the brainstem were in their natural state, so were the nerves coming from the brainstem. I found water in no other place in the ventricles of the brain, the girl was in control of all her senses until she died. When I examined her a few days before her death I noted that whenever her head was raised she coughed, her respirations became difficult, her face became red with the flow of blood, and tears dripped from her eyes.” This confirmed Vesalius’s observation that the accumulation of fluid in hydrocephalus is within the ventricles, and established the basis for his conclusion that hydrocephalus in infants causes an increase in head size, but that this macrocephaly does not occur in the adult who may also suffer hydrocephalus.

Keywords

Lateral Ventricle Cerebral Spinal Fluid Shunting System Shunt Tubing Occipital Horn 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Morgagni: Cited by Whytt, reference # 3.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vesalius: De humani corporis labrica librorum epitome. Joannis Opporini, Baselieae, 1543.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    Whytt R: Observations on the dropsy in the brain. Edinburgh J Balfour, 1768.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berengarius: cited by Baker, reference # 7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sylvius: cited by Baker, reference # 7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arantius: cited by Baker, reference # 7.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baker F: The two Sylviuses. An Historical Study. Bul John Hopkins Hosp 20: 329–339, 1909.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonnevie K: Hereditary hydrocephalus in the house mouse. K. Maniefestation of the hy-mutation after birth and embryos 12 days old or more. Skr Norske Vidensk Adac Oslo 1 Mat—kat, KI No 4, 1943.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Russell DS.: Observations on the pathology of Hydrocephalus. Spec Rep Ser med Res Council No 265, 1949.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dandy WE, Blackfan KD: Internal hydrocephalus. An experimental clinical and pathological study. Am J Dis Child 8: 406, 1914.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Raimondi AJ, Clark SJ, McLone DD: Pathogenesis of aqueductal occlusion in congenital murine hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 45: 66–77, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johnson RT, Johnson KP: Hydrocephalus following viral finection. The pathology of aqueductal stenosis develop ing after experimental mumps virus injection. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 27: 591, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gruneberg H: Two new mutant genes in the house mouse. J Genet 45: 22–28, 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Millen JW, Woolam DH Lamming GE: Hydrocephalus associated with deficiency of vitamin A. Lancet 2:1234, dans l’hydrocé1953.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kesterson JW, Carlton WW: Histopathologic and enzyme radiologique des erahistochemical observations of cuprizone-induced brain oedema. Experimental and molecular pathology 15: 82–96, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johnson RT, Johnson KP, Edmonds ES: Virus inducedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clark DB: Hydrocephalus. In Textbook of Pediatrics, 9th ed, WE Nelson, VC Vaughan and RJ Mckay (eds), Phila delphia, Saunders, 1969.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Raimondi AJ, Samuleson GS, Yarzagaray L, Norton T: treatment of hyAtresia of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie. The Dandy-Walker cyst. J Neurosurg 31: 202–216, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jakurbowski J, Jefferson A: Axial enlargement of the of Hydrothird ventricle and displacement of the brain stem in be nign aqueduct stenosis. Journal of Neurol Neurosurg and Hydrocephalus der Psychiat 45: 114–123, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Taggart JK, Walker AE: Congenital atresia of the fora- frei transplanmens of Luschka and Magendie. Archs Neurol Psychiat 48: 583–612, 1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matson DD: Prenatal obstruction of the fourth ventricle. hydrocéphalies: its treatAm J Roentg 76: 499–506, 1956.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brodal A, Hauglie-Hannssen E: Congenital hydrocepha sinuses. lus with defective development of the cerebellar vermis(Dandy-Walker Syndrome). Clinical and anatomical find ings in two cases with particular reference to the so called atreasia of the foramen of Luschka. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 22: 99–108, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Benda CE: The Dandy-Walker syndrome or the so called hydrocephalus by atresia of the foramen Magendie. J Neuropath exp Neurol 13: 14–29, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gibson JB: Congenital hydrocephalus due to atresia of Childhood, the foramen of Magendic. J Neuropath exp Neurol 14: 244–262, 1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D’Agostino AN, Kernohan JW, Brown JR: The Dandy- Walker syndrome. J Neuropath exp Neurol 22: 450–470, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gardner WJ, Abdullah AF, McCormack LJ: The varying expressions of embryonal atresia of the fourth ventricle Brackett, C.E.Jr.: Intestinal volin adults. J Neurosurg 11: 591–607, 1957.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Milhorat TH: Failure of choroid plexectomy as a treat ment for hydrocephalus. Surg Gynecol Obstet 193: 505, 1974.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Penfield W, Elvidge AR: Hydrocephalus and the atrophy 1891. of cerebral compression. In Penfield W (ed) Cytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System, New York, Hocher, 1932. Vol. 3, pp 1203–1217.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hassler O: Angioarchetecture in hydrocephalus. An au- Experience topsy and experimental study with the aid of microangiog raphy. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 4: 65–74, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    De SN: A study of the changes in the brain in experimental internal hydrocephalus. J Path Bact 62: 197, 1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dandy WE: Extirpation of the choroid plexys of the later al ventricles in communicating hydrocephalus. Ann Surg 68: 569–579, 1918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Heimbcrger RF, Kalsheck JE, Campbel RL: Positive con trast cerebral ventriculography using water-soluble me dia. Clinical evaluation of 102 procedures using methyl glucamine iothalamate 60 per cent. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 29: 281–290, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tolosa E: L’exploration arteriographique phalie infantile. Sem Hôp Paris, 27: 2401–2403, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fauré C, Burson B: L’exploration niopharyngiomes dc l’enfant (A propos de 170 observa tions). Ann Radiol 2: 197–228, 1959.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Paillas JE, Bonnal J, Berard-Bachie H: Les angiomes A-V du cerveau chez l’enfant. Presse med 66: 525, 1958. hydrocephalus development of aqueductal stenosis afterGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raimondi AJ: Pediatric Neuroradiology, Saunders, Phila¬mumps infection. Science 157:1066–7, 1967. delphia, 1972.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Davidoff LM: Hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus with meningocele. Their treatment by chorid plexectomy. Surg Clin N Amer 28: 416, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sutherland GA, Cheyne WW: The drocephalus by intracranial drainage. Brit MJ 2: 1155, 1898.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ferguson AH: In Davidoff, LJ Treatment cephalus, Arch Surg 18: 1737, 1929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kausch W: Die Behandlung des kleinen Kinder. Arch f Chir 87: 709, 1908.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Payr E: Drainage der Hirnvertrikel mittlest tirtor Blutse: Bemerkungen über Hydrocephalus. Arch f klin chir 87: 801, 1908.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haynes IS: Congenital internal ment. Drainage of the cisterna magna into the cranial Ann Surg 57: 449, 1913.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ingraham FD, Sears, RA, Woods, RP, Bailey, OT: Fur ther studies on the treatment of experimental hydro cephalus. Attempts to drain the cerebrospinal fluid into the pleural cavity and the thoracic duct. J Neurosurg 6: 207, 1949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nulsen FE, Spitz, E.G.: Treatment of direct shunt from ventricle to jugular vein. Surg Forum 2: 399, 1952.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Matson DD: Neurosurgery of Infancy and 2nd ed. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, 1969.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ransohoff J, Shulman K, Fishman RA: Hydrocephalus.A review of etiology and treatment. J Pediat 56: 399, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Harsh GR III: Peritoneal shunt for hydrocephalus utiliz ing the fimbria of the fallopian tube for entrance into the peritoneal cavity. J Neurosurg 11: 284, 1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sakoda TH, Maxwell JA, vulus secondary to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Case Re port. J Neurosurg 35: 95–96, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Keen Weitzner WW: Surgery of the lateral ventricles. Ver handl d x internat med Kongr III Chirurgie, Berlin, p. 108, 1981.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ransohoff J: Ventriculo-pleural anastomosis and treat ment of midline obstructed masses. J Neurosurg 11: 295–301, 1954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hoffman HJ, Hendrick EB, Humphreys RP: with ventriculo-pleural shunts. Child’s Brain 10:404–13, 1983. 52. Neumann CG, Hoen TI, Davis DA: The treatment of communicating hydrocephalus by the absorption of cerebral spinal fluid by the mucosa of an isolated segment of ileum (modified ileo-entectropy). Surg Forum 705, 1958.Google Scholar
  52. 53.
    Smith GW, Moretz WH, Pritchard WL: Ventriculo-biliary shunt. A new treatment for hydrocephalus. Surg Forum 701, 1958.Google Scholar
  53. 54.
    Brown JT: Intrauterine shunting for hydrocephalus. In Pachi A, Calisti A, Astrei G (eds): Prenatal Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Congenital Malformations. Padova, Italy, Piccin/Butterworths, 1983 p 231.Google Scholar
  54. 55.
    Cambria S, Cambria M, Gambardella G, Cardia E, La-bianca M: Idrocefalia sperimentale su feto in utero. Parte IV. Mini-uni-shunt ventricolo amniotico: Note technich Chir Patol Sper 27: 369–71, 1979.Google Scholar
  55. 56.
    Michejda M, Hodgen GD: In utero diagnosis and treatment of non-human primate fetal skeletal anomalies. I Hydrocephalus. JAMA 246: 1093, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 57.
    Clewell WH, et al.: A surgical approach to the treatment of fetal hydrocephalus. N Engl J Med 306: 1320, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 58.
    Frigoletto FD, Birnholz JC, Greene MF: Antenatal treatment of hydrocephalus by ventriculoamniotic shunting. JAMA 248: 2496, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 59.
    Raimondi AJ: Pediatric Neuroradiology p 261. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1972.Google Scholar

Uncited References

  1. DiRocco D, McLone DG, Shimoji T, Raimondi AJ: Continuous intraventricular CSF pressure recording in hydrocephalic children during wakefulness and sleep. J Neurosurg 42: 683, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gutierrez FA, Raimondi AJ: Peritoneal cysts: A complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Surgery 79: 188–92, 1975.Google Scholar
  3. Hahn Y, Raimondi AJ: Ventriculoperitoneal shunting with one piece spring catheter: Technical note. Yonsei Med J 17: 157–62, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Mori K, Raimondi AJ: An analysis of external ventricular drainage as a treatment for infected shunts. Child’s Brain 1: 243–50, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Raimondi AJ: A critical analysis of the clinical diagnosis management and prognosis of the hydrocephalic child. In Schulman I (ed): Chicago, Yearbook Medical Publishers, 1971, vol 18, p 265.Google Scholar
  6. Raimondi AJ: Hydrocephalus and the congenital anomalies associated with it: Angiographic diagnosis. Semin Roentgenol 6: 111–25, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Raimondi AJ, Guiterrez FA, Jones RR, Winston SR: Cystic cavum veli interpositi associated with normal or low pressure hydrocephalus. Child’s Brain 1: 291–305, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Raimondi AJ, Matsumoto S: A simplified technique for performing the ventriculoperitoneal shunt. J Neurosurg 26: 357–60, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Raimondi AI, Robinson JS, Kuwamurak: Complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunting and a critical comparison of the three-piece and one-piece systems. Child’s Brain 3: 321–42, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Raimondi AJ, Soare PL: Intellectual development in shunted hydrocephalic children. Am J Dis Child 127: 664–71, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Robinson JS, Kuwamura K, Raimondi AJ: Complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunting procedures. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Myelomeningocele, Cincinnati, Ohio. New York, Grune, Stratton, 1977.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony J. Raimondi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations