Erythroblastosis Fetalis and Hydrops Fetalis

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann


Erythroblastosis fetalis, or hemolytic disease of the newborn, is a condition caused by specific antibodies of the mother, directed against red cell antigens of the fetus. These are largely Rh-(D) antigens, but rare cases of sensitization against other antigens (e.g., Kell), and of ABO incompatibility with fetal hemolytic disease have been described. Leventhal and Wolf (1956) have presented Kell isoimmunization as a cause of fatal erythroblastosis (EF). This form was also found in the well-illustrated case of Ivemark et al. (1959). Anti-K antibodies usually arise as a result of transfusion, and the fetal disease is usually mild. Of 194 pregnancies complicated by this antibody constellation, only 16 affected babies were identified, of which 3 were severely affected by hemolytic disease (Leggat et al., 1991). The difficulty in this situation is the identification of the pregnancies at risk, an aspect discussed in some detail in an Editorial (1991). Anti-K hemolytic disease does not differ histopathologically from anti-D-caused erythroblastosis. There may, however, be a difference in the response to this antibody. Vaughan et al. (1998) showed that they specifically inhibit growth of K-positive erythroid precursors and may thus lead to severe fetal anemia. Relatively few cases of typical, severe EF have been described as being due to ABO incompatibility. These cases were summarized by Freda and Carter (1962) and a fatal case is delineated in the paper by Miller and Petrie (1963), but usually the hemolytic disease of ABO incompatibility is mild. The pathological findings of infant and placenta are the same as those in EF caused by Rh incompatibility; in the case described by Miller and Petrie, the placenta weighed 900g and had typical features of erythroblastosis. Other types of hemolysis occur that also produce similar pathological features of infant and placenta. Thus, hemolysis in fetal blood may rarely result because of glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, virus infection, or for other uncommon reasons. These causes of fetal hemolysis must be differentiated from the classical erythroblastosis.


Hydatidiform Mole Hemolytic Disease Fetal Hydrops Mesoblastic Nephroma Intrauterine Transfusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adzick, N.S., Crombleholme, T.M., Morgan, M.A. and Quinn, T.M.: A rapidly growing fetal teratoma. Lancet 349: 538, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alenghat, E. and Esterly, J.R.: Intravascular hematopoiesis in chorionic villi. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 79:225–227, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anand, A., Gray, E.S., Brown, T., Clewley, J.P. and Cohen, B.J.: Human parvovirus infection in and hydrops fetalis. N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 183–186, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anandakumar, C., Biswas, A., Chew, S.S.L., Chia, D., Wong, Y.C. and Ratnam S.S.: Direct fetal therapy for hydrops secondary to congenital atrioventricular heart block. Obstet. Gynecol. 87: 835–837, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anders, D., Kindermann, G. and Pfeifer, U.: Metastasizing fetal neuroblastoma with involvement of the placenta simulating fetal erythroblastosis. J. Pediatr. 82: 50–53, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, M.J. and Pattison, J.R.: The human parvoviruses: brief review. Arch. Virol. 82: 137–148, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, L.J. and Török, T.J.: Human parvovirus B19. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 536–538, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, M.J., Khousam, M.N., Maxwell, D.J., Gould, S.J., Happerfield, L.C. and Smith, W.J.: Human parvovirus B19 and hydrops fetalis. Lancet I: 535, 1988.Google Scholar
  9. Appelman, Z., Blumberg, B.D., Golabi, M. and Golbus, M.S.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis may be associated with an elevated delta OC450 in the amniotic fluid. Obstet. Gynecol. 71: 1005–1008, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Aslam, P.A., Korones, S.B., Richardson, R.L. and Pate, J.W.: Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation with anasarca. J.A.M.A. 212: 622–624, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barentsen, R.: Sacrococcygeal teratoom en hydramnion. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. 119: 1168–1169, 1975.Google Scholar
  12. Barton, J.R., Thorpe, E.M., Shaver, D.C., Hager, W.D. and Sibai, B.M.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis associated with maternal infection with syphilis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 56–58, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bawle, E.V. and Black, V.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis in Noonan’s syndrome. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140:758–760, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Becker, V. and Bleyl, U.: Placentarzotte bei Schwangerschaftstoxikose und fetaler Erythroblastose im fluorescenzmikroskopischen Bilde. Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 334: 516–527, 1961.Google Scholar
  15. Beischer, N.A., Holsman, M. and Kitchen, W.H.: Relation of various forms of anemia to placental weight. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 101: 801–809, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Beischer, N.A., Pepperell, R.J. and Barrie, J.U.: Twin pregnancy and erythroblastosis. Obstet. Gynecol. 34: 22–29, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Benacerraf, B.R. and Frigoletto, F.D.: In utero treatment of a fetus with diaphragmatic hernia complicated by hydrops. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155: 817–818, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Benachi, A., Garritsen, H.S.P., Howard, C.M., Bennett, R and Fisk, N.M.: Absence of expression of RhD by human trophoblast cells. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.178: 294–299, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ben-Ami, M., Shalev, E., Romano, S. and Zuckerman, H.: Midtrimester diagnosis of endocardial fibroblastosis and atrial septal defect: a case report. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155: 662–663, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Benirschke, K., Swartz, W.H., Leopold, G. and Sahn, D.: Hydrops due to myocarditis in a fetus. Am. J. Cardiovasc. Pathol. 1: 131–133, 1986.Google Scholar
  21. Berkowitz, R.L., Chitkara, U., Goldberg, J.D., Wilkins, I., Chervenak, F.A. and Lynch, L.: Intrauterine intravascular transfusions for severe red blood cell isoimmunization: ultrasound-guided percutaneous approach. Am. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 155: 574–581, 1986.Google Scholar
  22. Bernstein, I.M. and Capeless, E.L.: Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and hydrops fetalis in association with fetal parvovirus B-19 infection. Obstet. Gynecol. 74: 456–457, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Birkenfeld, A., Mordel, N. and Okon, E.: Direct demonstration of iron in a term placenta in a case of 13-thalassemia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160: 562–563, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Birner, W.F.: Neuroblastoma as a cause of antenatal death. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 82: 1388–1391, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bock, B., Riess, R., Wunsch, P.H. and Feige, A.: Pränatale Diagnostik eines Steibeinteratoms mit Hydrops fetalis und Plazentahypertrophie—Konsequenzen für den weiteren Schwangerschaftsverlauf. Geburtsh. Frauenheilkd. 50: 647–649, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bond, P.R., Caul, E.O., Usher, J., Cohen, B.J., Clewley, J.P. and Field, A.M.: Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus. Lancet 1: 448–449, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bouissou, H., Kanoun, T., Bierme, S. and Bierme, R.: Foie et placenta au cours de la maladie hémolytique par iso-immunisation Rh. (Étude histologique et déductions.) Pathol. Biol. 17: 109–120, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bowman, J.M., Lewis, M. and de Sa, D.J.: Hydrops fetalis caused by massive maternofetal transplacental hemorrhage. J. Pediatr. 104: 769–772, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bridge, J.A., McManus, B.M., Remmenga, J. and Cuppage, F.P.: Complete heart block in the 18p-syndrome. Congenital calcification of the atrioventricular node. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 113: 539–541, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Briner, J., Hassam, S., Girsberger, M. and Tratschin, J.D.: Demonstration of parvovirus infection in human fetuses and infants by in situ hybridization. Pediatr. Pathol. 7: 479–480, 1987.Google Scholar
  31. Brinson, R.A. and Goldsmith, J.P.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis associated with intrauterine intussusception. J. Perinatol. 8: 225–227, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Broderick, K., Oyer, R. and Chatwani, A.: Neu-Laxova syndrome: a case report. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158:574–575, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bromley, B., Frigoletto, F.D., Estroff, J.A. and Benacerraf, B.R.: The natural history of oligohydramnios/polyhydramnios sequence in monochorionic diamniotic twins. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 2: 317–320, 1992.Google Scholar
  34. Brown, T., Anand, A., Ritschie, L.D., Clewley, J.P. and Reid, T.M.S.: Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis. Lancet 11: 1033–1034, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brown, K.E., Green, S.W., de Mayolo, J.A., Bellanti, J.A., Smith, S.D., Smith, T.J. and Young, N.S.: Congenital anaemia after transplacental B19 parvovirus infection. Lancet 343: 895–896, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Burger, K.: Mit Hydrops foetus et placentae einhergehende Luteinzysten. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 69: 533–536, 1947.Google Scholar
  37. Burstein, R.H. and Blumenthal, H.T.: Vascular lesions of the placenta of possible immunogenic origin in erythroblastosis fetalis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 83: 1062–1068, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Burton, P.A. and Caul, E.O.: Fetal cell tropism of human parvovirus B 19. Lancet 1: 767, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Busch, W. and Vogel, M.: Die Plazenta beim “Morbus haemolyticus neonatorum”. Z. Geburtshilfe. Perinatol. 176: 17–28, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cardwell, M.S.: Successful treatment of hydrops fetalis caused by fetomaternal hemorrhage: a case report. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158: 131–132, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Carles, D., Serville, F., Dubecq, J.-P, Alberti, E.M., Horowitz, J. and Weichwold, W.: Idiopathic arterial calcification in a stillborn complicated by pleural hemorrhage and hydrops fetalis. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 116: 293–295, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Carr, S., Rubin, L., Dixon, D., Star, J. and Dailey, J.: Intrauterine therapy for homozygous a-thalassemia. Obstet. Gynecol. 85: 876–879, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Carrington, D., Gilmore, D.H., Whittle, M.J., Aitken, D., Gibson, A.A.M., Patrick, W.J.A., Brown, T., Caul, E.O., Field, A.M., Clewley, J.P. and Cohen, B.J.: Maternal serum a-fetoproteina marker of fetal aplastic crisis during intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Lancet 1: 433–435, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Carter, B.S., DiGiacomo, J.E., Balderston, S.M., Wiggins, J.W. and Merenstein, G.B.: Disproportionate septal hypertrophy associated with erythroblastosis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 144: 1225–1228, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chang, J.C. and Kan, Y.W.: Antenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia by direct analysis of the sickle mutation. Lancet I1: 1127–1129, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Christie, R.W.: Lutein cysts of ovaries associated with erythroblastotic hydrops fetalis. Assay of gonadotropin in serum of Rh-sensitized women in later stages of pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 36: 518–523, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Clark, S.L., Vitale, D.J., Minton, S.D., Stoddard, R.A. and Sabey, P.L.: Successful fetal therapy for cystic adenomatoid malformation associated with second-trimester hydrops. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 294–295, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Copel, J.A., Buyon, J.P. and Kleinman, C.S.: Successful in utero therapy of fetal heart block. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173: 1384–1390, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cukierski, M.A., Tarantal, A.F. and Hendrickx, A.G.: A case of nonimmune hydrops fetalis with a rare cardiac anomaly in a rhesus monkey. J. Med. Primatol. 15: 227–234, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Cumming, D.C.: Recurrent nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 54: 124–126, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Curry, C.J.R., Chopra, D. and Finer, N.N.: Hydrops and pleural effusions in congenital myotonic dystrophy. J. Pediatr. 113: 555–557, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Davis, C.L.: Diagnosis and management of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. J. Reprod. Med. 27: 594–600, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. De Krijger, R.R., van Elsacker-Niele, A.M.W., Mulder-Stapel, A., Salimans, M.M.M., Dreef, E., Weiland, H.T., van Krieken, J.H.J.M. and Vermeij-Keers, C.: Detection of parvovirus B 19 infection in first and second trimester fetal loss. Pediatr. Pathol. Lab. Med. 18: 23–34, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. DeLia, J.E. and Emery, M.G.: Digoxin therapy in the fetus. Am. J. Dis. Child 140: 974–975, 1986.Google Scholar
  55. Dorman, S.L. and Cardwell, M.S.: Ballantyne syndrome caused by a large placental chorioangioma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173: 1632–1633, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Doss, B.J., Vicari, J., Jacques, S.M. and Qureshi, F.: Placental involvement in congenital hepatoblastoma. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 1: 538–542, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Driscoll, S.G. and Steinke, J.: Pancreatic insulin content in severe erythroblastosis fetalis. Pediatrics 39: 449–450, 1967.Google Scholar
  58. Drogendijk, A.C.: The pathogenesis of foetal hydrops. Gynaecologia 156: 129–139, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Drut, R.M. and Drut, R.: Nonimmune fetal hydrops and placentomegaly: diagnosis of familial Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome with trisomy 11p15 using FISH. Am. J. Med. Genet. 62: 145–149, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Drut, R., Mortera, M. and Drut, R.M.: Yolk sac tumor of the placenta in Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 1: 534–537, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Editorial: Dangers of anti-Kell in pregnancy. Lancet 337: 1319–1320, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Eklund, J.: Embryonic rhesus-positive red cells stimulating a secondary response after early abortion. Lancet II:748,1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Elsacker-Niele, A.M.W., Salimans, M.M.M., Weiland, H.T., Vermey-Keers, C., Anderson, M.J. and Versteeg, J.: Fetal pathology in human parvovirus B19 infection. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 96: 768–775, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Evron, S., Yagel, S., Samueloff, A., Margaliot, E., Burstein, P. and Sadovsky, E.: Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis: a review of 11 cases. J. Perinat. Med. 13: 147–151, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Feige, A., Gille, J., Maillot, K.V. and Mulz, D.: Pränatale Diagnostik eines Steißbeinteratoms mit Hypertrophie der Plazenta. Geburtsh. Frauenheilkd. 42: 20–24, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fisher, R.A., Paradinas, F.J., Soteriou, B.A., Foskett, M. and Newlands, E.S.: Diploid hydatidiform moles with fetal red blood cells in molar villi. 2: Genetics. J. Pathol. 181: 189–195, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fox, H.: The incidence and significance of nucleated erythrocytes in the foetal vessels of the mature human placenta. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 74: 40–43, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Franciosi, R. and Tattersall, P.: Human parvovirus (B19) causing hydrops fetalis. Pediatr. Pathol. 7: 485–486, 1987.Google Scholar
  69. Freda, V.J. and Carter, B.-A.: Placental permeability in the human for anti-A and anti-B isoantibodies. Am. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 84: 1351–1367, 1962.Google Scholar
  70. Freda, V.J., Gorman, J.G., Galen, R.S. and Treacy, N.: The threat of Rh immunisation from abortion. Lancet, 1: 147–148, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Friesen, R.F., Bowman, J M., Barnes, P.H., Grewar, D., McInnis, C. and Bowman, W.D.: Intrauterine transfusions for erythroblastosis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 97: 343–339, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fung, T.Y., Fung, Y.M.H., Ng, P.C., Yeung, C.K. and Chang, M.Z.A.: Polyhydramnios and hypercalcemia associated with congenital mesoblastic nephroma: case report and a new appraisal. Obstet. Gynecol. 85: 815–817, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gallagher, P.G., Weed, S.A., Tse, W.T., Benoit, L., Morrow, J.S., Marchesi, S.L., Mohandas, N. and Forget, B.G.: Recurrent fatal hydrops fetalis associated with a nucleotide substitution in the erythrocyte ß-spectrin gene. J. Clin. Invest. 95: 1174–1182, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gembruch, U., Niesen, M., Hansmann, M. and Knöpple, G.: Listeriosis: a cause of non-immune hydrops fetalis. Prenatal Diagn. 7: 277–282, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Giacoia, G.P.: Hydrops fetalis (fetal edema). A survey. Clin. Pediatr. 19: 334–339, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Giles, H.M., Ough, R.C.B., Darmady, E.M., Stranack, F. and Woolf, L.I.: The nephrotic syndrome in early infancy: a report of three cases. Arch. Dis. Child. 32: 167–180, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gillan, J.E., Lowden, J.A., Gaskin, K. and Cutz, E.: Congenital ascites as a presenting sign of lysosomal storage disease. J. Pediatr. 104: 225–231, 1994.Google Scholar
  78. Ginsburg, S.J. and Groll, M.: Hydrops fetalis due to infantile Gaucher’s disease. J. Pediatr. 82: 1046–1048, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gloster, E.S., Jimenez, J.F., Godoy, G., Burrows, R, Hill, D., Mollitt, D.L. and Grunow, W.A.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis: the Arkansas Children’ Hospital experience for 1982–1983. Lab. Invest. 50: 3P, 1984.Google Scholar
  80. Goldschmidt, E., Cohen, T., Isacsohn, M. and Freier, S.: Incidence of hemoglobin Bart’ in a sample of newborn from Israel. Acta Genet. (Basel) 18: 361–368, 1968.Google Scholar
  81. Gonen, R., Fong, K. and Chiasson, D.A.: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of hepatic hemangioendothelioma with secondary nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 73: 485–487, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gonsoulin, W, Copeland, K.L., Carpenter, R.J., Hughes, M.R. and Elder, F.B.: Fetal blood sampling demonstrating chimerism in monozygotic twins discordant for sex and tissue karyotype (46,XY and 45,X). Prenatal Diagn. 10: 25–28, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Goto, S., Nishi, H. and Tomoda, Y.: Blood group Rh-D factor in human trophoblast determined by immunofluorescent method. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 137: 707–712, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gottschalk, W. and Abramson, D.: Placental edema and fetal hydrops. A case of congenital cystic and adenomatoid malformation of the lung. Obstet. Gynecol. 10: 626–631, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Grannum, EA.T., Copel, J.A., Moya, F.R., Scioscia, A.L., Robert, J.A., Winn, H.N., Coster, B.C., Burdine, C.B. and Hobbins, J.C.: The reversal of hydrops fetalis by intravascular intrauterine transfusion in severe isoimmune fetal anemia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158: 914–919, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Graves, G.R. and Baskett, T.F.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis: antenatal diagnosis and management. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148: 563–569, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gray, E.S.: Human parvovirus infection. J. Pathol. 153: 310–311, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gray, E.S.: Mesoblastic nephroma and non-immunological hydrops fetalis. Letter to the editor. Pediatr. Pathol. 9: 607–609, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gray, E.S., Davidson, R.J.L. and Anand, A.: Human parvovirus and fetal anaemia. Lancet L•1144,1987.Google Scholar
  90. Gray, G.R., Towell, M.E., Wright, V.J. and Hardwick, D.F.: Thalassemic hydrops fetalis in two Chinese-Canadian families. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 107: 1186–1190, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Green, D.W., Donovan, E.F. and Wood, B.P.: Radiological cases of the month. Am. J. Dis. Child. 114: 93–94, 1990.Google Scholar
  92. Greenberg, F., Faucett, A., Rose, E., Bancalari, L., Kardon, N.B., Mizejewski, G., Haddon, J.E. and Alpert, E.: Congenital deficiency of a-fetoprotein. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 509–511, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Grimes, D.A., Geary, F.H. and Hatcher, R.A.: Rh immunoglobulin utilization after ectopic pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 140: 246–249, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Gropp, A.: Fetal hydrops in chromosome disorders as principle of damage in developmental pathology. Clinical observations in man and experimental studies in the mouse. In, One Medicine. O.A. Ryder, and M.L. Byrd, eds, pp. 84–95. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  95. Guntheroth, W.G., Cyr, D.R., Mack, L.A., Benedetti, T., Lenke, R.R. and Petty, C.N.: Hydrops from reciprocating atrioventricular tachycardia in a 27-week fetus requiring quinidine for conversion. Obstet. Gynecol. 66: 29S–33S, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Guy, G., Coady, D.J., Jansen, V., Snyder, J. and Zinberg, S.: aThalassemia hydrops fetalis: clinical and ultrasonographic considerations. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 153: 500–504, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hall, S.M., Cohen, B.J., Mortimer, RR, Caul, E.O., CradockWatson, J., Anderson, M.J., Pattison, J.R., Shirley, J.A. and Peto, T.E.A.: Prospective study of human parvovirus (B 19) infection in pregnancy. Br. Med. J. 300: 1166–1170, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hallak, M., Neerhof, M.G., Perry, R., Nazir, M. and Hulka, J.C.: Fetal supraventricular tachycardia and hydrops fetalis: combined intensive, direct, and transplacental therapy. Obstet. Gynecol. 78: 523–525, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Hardy, L., Hansen, J.L., Kushner, J.P. and Knisely, A.S.: Neonatal hemochromatosis: genetic analysis of transferrin-receptor, H-apoferritin, and L-apoferritin loci and of the human leukocyte antigen class I region. Am. J. Pathol. 137: 149–153, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Harger, J.H., Adler, S.P., Koch, W.C. and Harger, G.F.: Prospective evaluation of 618 pregnant women exposed to parvovirus B19: risks and symptoms. Obstet. Gynecol. 91: 413–420, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Harkavy, K.L. and Scanlon, J.W.: Hydrops fetalis in a parabiotic, acardiac twin. Am. J. Dis. Child. 132: 638–639, 1978.Google Scholar
  102. Harman, C.R., Bowman, J.M., Menticoglou, S.M., Pollock, J.M. and Manning, F.A.: Profound fetal thrombocytopenia in rhesus disease: serious hazard at intravascular transfusion. Lancet II: 741–742, 1988.Google Scholar
  103. Hatjis, C.G.: Nonimmunologic fetal hydrops associated with hyperreactio luteinalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 65: 11S–13S, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hellman, L.M. and Hertig, A.T.: Pathological changes in the placenta associated with erythroblastosis of the fetus. Am. J. Pathol. 14: 111–120, 1937.Google Scholar
  105. Hendricks, S.K., Sorensen, T.K. and Baker, E.R.: Trisomy 21, fetal hydrops, and anemia: prenatal diagnosis of transient myeloproliferative disorder? Obstet. Gynecol. 82: 703–705, 1993.Google Scholar
  106. Herman, A., Bukovsky, Y., Benson, L., Weinraub, Z. and Caspi, E.: Intrapartum use of fetal scalp hematocrit in the diagnosis of profound fetal anemia caused by fetomaternal hemorrhage. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 1182–1183, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hogge, W.A., Hogge, J.S., Schnatterly, ET., Sun, C.J. and Blitzer, M.G.: Congenital nephrosis: detection of index cases through maternal serum a-fetoprotein screening. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 1330–1333, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Holzgreve, W., Miny, E, Anderson, R. and Golbus, M.S.: Experience with 8 cases of prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas. Fetal Ther. 2: 88–94, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Horowitz, A., Cohen, T., Goldschmidt, E. and Levene, C.: Thalassemia among Kurdish Jews in Israel. Br. J. Haematol. 12: 555–568, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Houston, C.S. and Brown, A.B.: An unusual complication of intrauterine transfusion. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 94: 1274–1277, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hoyer, J.R., Michael, A.E, Good, R.A. and Vernier, R.L.: The nephrotic syndrome of infancy: clinical, morphologic, and immunologic studies of four infants. Pediatrics 40: 233–246, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hoyer, J.R., Mauer, S.M., Kjellstrand, C.M., Buselmeier, T.J., Simmons, R.L., Michael, A.F., Najarian, J.S. and Vernier, R.L.: Successful renal transplantation in 3 children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Lancet I: 1410–1413, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Humphrey, W., Magoon, M. and O’haughnessy, R.: Severe nonimmune hydrops secondary to parvovirus B-19 infection: spontaneous reversal in utero and survival of a term infant. Obstet. Gynecol. 78: 900–902, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hung, E-L., Huang, C.-C. and Huang, T.-S.: Nephrotic syndrome in a Chinese infant. Am. J. Dis. Child 131: 557–559, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hutchison, A.A., Drew, J.H., Yu, V.Y.H., Williams, M.L., Fortune, D.W. and Beischer, N.A.: Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis: a review of 61 cases. Obstet. Gynecol. 59: 347–352, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Iakovtsova, A.G.: Morphologic changes in the placenta in isoantigenic incompatibility of maternal and fetal blood. Pediatr. Akush. Hinekol. 1: 53–55, 1964.Google Scholar
  117. Imakita, M., Yutani, C., Ishibashi-Ueda, H., Murakami, M. and Chiba, Y.: A case of hydrops fetalis due to placental chorangioma. Acta Pathol. Jpn. 38: 941–945, 1988.Google Scholar
  118. Ing, R.Y.K., Crookston, J.H., Dworatzek, J.A. and Burnie, K.L.: Alpha thalassemia: five cases of hemoglobin H disease in Oriental-Canadian families. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 99: 49–56, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Irani, D., Kim, H.S., El-Hibri, H., Dutton, R.V., Beaudet, A. and Armstrong, D.: Postmortem observations on (3-glucuronidase deficiency presenting as hydrops fetalis. Ann. Neurol. 14: 486–490, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ivemark, B.I., Högman, C., Rudert, P.O. and Andersen, B.: Kelliso-immunization as the cause of fatal erythroblastosis fetalis. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 45: 193–202, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jackson, M.R., Carney, E.W., Lye, S.J. and Knox Ritchie, J.W.: Localization of two angiogenic growth factors (PDECGF and VEGF) in human placentae throughout gestation. Placenta 15: 341–353, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. James, G.B.: Histology of the placenta after repeated intrauterine transfusions. Proc. R. Soc. Meçl. 63: 54, 1970.Google Scholar
  123. Jarkowski, T.L., Rosenblatt, M., Wolf, E and Pearson, B.: Tissue-fixed antigens of the Rh blood group system in placentae and fetuses; with particular reference to hemolytic disease of the newborn. Lab. Invest. 13: 937, 1964.Google Scholar
  124. Jauniaux, E., Maldergem, L.V., Munter, C. de, Moscoso, G. and Gillerot, Y.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis associated with genetic abnormalities. Obstet. Gynecol. 75: 568–572, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Johnson, E, Sharland, G., Allan, L.D., Tynan, M.J. and Maxwell, D.J.: Umbilical venous pressure in nonimmune hydrops fetalis: Correlation with cardiac size. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167:1309–1313, 1992.Google Scholar
  126. Jones, C.J.P. and Fox, H.: An ultrastructural study of the placenta in materno-fetal rhesus incompatibility. Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. Histol. 379: 229–241, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jones, D.E.D., Pritchard, K.I., Gioannini, C.A., Moore, D.T. and Bradford, W.D.: Hydrops fetalis associated with idiopathic arterial calcification. Obstet. Gynecol. 39: 435–440, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Jonxis, J.H.P.: The development of hemoglobin. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 12: 535–550, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Jordan, J.A.: Identification of human parvovirus B19 infection in idiopathic nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174: 37–42, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Jorgensen, J.: Rhesus-antibody development after abortion. Lancet IL•1253–1254,1969.Google Scholar
  131. Kamat, B.R., Greco, M.A. and Demopoulos, R.I.: Immunocytochemical staining patterns of placentas associated with hydrops fetalis. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. 8: 246–254, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kan, Y.W., Allen, A. and Lowenstein, L.: Hydrops fetalis with alpha thalassemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 276: 18–23, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kan, Y.W., Forget, B.G. and Nathan, D.G.: Gamma-beta thalassemia: a cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn. N. Engl. J. Med. 286: 129–134, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kan, Y.W., Golbus, M.S. and Dozy, A.M.: Prenatal diagnosis of a-thalassemia: clinical application of molecular hybridization. N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 1165–1167, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kaplan, C., Lane, B., Miller, E, Baker, D. and Trunca, C.: Renal pathology of prenatally diagnosed nephrosis. Pediatr. Pathol. 3: 271–281, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kinney, J.S., Anderson, L.J., Farrar, J., Strikas, R.A., Kumar, M.L., Kliegman, R.M., Sever, J.L., Hurwitz, E.S. and Sikes, R.K.: Risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection. J. Infect. Dis. 157: 663–667, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Klein, A.M., Holzman, I.R. and Austin, E.M.: Fetal tachycardia before the development of hydrops-attempted cardioversion: a case report. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 134: 347–348, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Kleinman, C.S., Donnerstein, R.L., Devore, G.R., Jaffe, C.C., Lynch, D.C., Berkowitz, R.L., Talner, N.S. and Hobbins, J.C.: Fetal echocardiography for evaluation of in utero congestive heart failure. A technique for study of nonimmune hydrops. N. Engl. J. Med. 306: 568–575, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Knisely, A.S.: Placental siderosis in maternal 13-thalassemia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 162: 1638–1639, 1990a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Knisely, A.S.: Parvovirus B19 infection in the fetus. Lancet 336: 443, 1990b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Knisely, A.S., O’hea, P., McMillan, P., Singer, D.B. and Magid, M.S.: Electron microscopic identification of parvovirus virions in erythroid-line cells in fatal hydrops fetalis. Pediatr. Pathol. 8: 163–170, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Koffler, H., Papile, L.-A. and Burstein, R.: Congenital chylothorax: two cases associated with maternal polyhydramnios. Am. J. Dis. Child 132: 638, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kohga, S., Nambu, T., Tanaka, K., Benirschke, K., Feldman, B.H. and Kishikawa, T.: Hypertrophy of the placenta and sacrococcygeal teratoma. Report of two cases. Virchows Arch. A Pathol. Anat. Histol. 386: 223–229, 1980.Google Scholar
  144. Kohler, H.G. and Rymer, B.: Congenital cystic malformation of the lung and its relation to hydramnios. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. B. Commonw 80: 130–134, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Kovacs, B.W., Carlson, D.E., Shahbahrami, M.S. and Platt, L.D.: Prenatal diagnosis of human parvovirus B19 in nonimmune hydrops fetalis by polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 461–466, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Krause, J.R., Penchansky, L. and Knisely, A.S.: Morphological diagnosis of parvovirus B19 infection. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 116: 178–180, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Kuhlmann, R.S., Warsof, S.L., Levy, D.L., Flake, A.J. and Harrison M.R.: Fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Fetal Ther. 2: 95–100, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Lacro, R.V., Jones, K.L. and Benirschke, K.: Coarctation of the aorta in Turner syndrome: a pathologic study of fetuses with nuchal hygromas, hydrops fetalis, and female genitalia. Pediatrics 81: 445–451, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lage, J.M.: Placentomegaly with massive hydrops of placental stem villi, diploid DNA content, and omphaloceles: possible association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Hum. Pathol. 22: 591–597, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Landrum, B.G., Johnson, D.E., Ferrara, B., Boros, S.J. and Thomson, T.R.: Hydrops fetalis and chromosomal trisomies. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154: 1114–1115, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Langer, J.C., Harrison, M.R., Schmidt, K.G., Silverman, N.H., Anderson, R.L., Goldberg, J.D., Filly, R.A., Crombleholme, T.M., Longaker, M.T. and Golbus, M.S.: Fetal hydrops and death from sacrococcygeal teratoma: rationale for fetal surgery. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160: 1145–1150, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Laros, R.K. and Kaistone, C.E.: Sickle cell f3-thalassemia and pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 37: 67–71, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Leake, R.D., Strimling, B. and Emmanouilidis, G.C.: Intrauterine cardiac failure with hydrops fetalis. Case report in a twin with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome and review of the literature. Clin. Pediatr. 12: 649–651, 1973.Google Scholar
  154. Lebo, R.V., Saiki, R.K., Swanson, K., Montano, M.A., Erlich, H.A. and Golbus, M.S.: Prenatal diagnosis of a-thalassemia by polymerase chain reaction and dual restriction enzyme analysis. Hum. Genet. 85: 293–299, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lee, J.-N., Huang, S.-C., Ouyang, P.-C. and Chard, T.: Circulating placental proteins in pregnancies complicated by Rh isoimmunization. Obstet. Gynecol. 64: 131–132, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Leggat, H.M., Gibson, J.M., Barron, S.L. and Reid, M.M.: Anti-Kell in pregnancy. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 98: 162–165, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Leventhal, M.L. and Wolf, A.M.: Erythroblastosis (hydrops) fetalis from Kell sensitization. Am. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 71: 452–454, 1956.Google Scholar
  158. Lie-Injo, L.E.: Haemoglobin of new-born infants in Indonesia. Nature (Lond.) 183: 1125–1126, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Lie-Injo, L.E.: Alpha-chain thalassemia and hydrops fetalis in Malaysia; report of 5 cases. Blood 20: 581–590, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Lie-Injo, L.E., Lopez, C.G. and Dutt, A.K.: Pathological findings in hydrops foetalis due to alpha-thalassemia: a review of 32 cases. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 62: 874–879, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Lingman, G., Lundström, N.R., Marsal, K. and Ohrlander, S.: Fetal cardiac arrhythmia—clinical outcome in 113 cases. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 65: 263–267, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Louderback, A.L. and Shanbrom, E.: Hemoglobin electrophoresis. J.A.M.A. 202: 718–719, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Luca, E.C. de, Casadei, A.M., Pascone, R., Tardi, C. and Pacioni, C.: Maternofetal transfusion during delivery and sensitization of newborn against the rhesus D-antigen. Vox Sanguinis 34: 241–243, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lynn, A.A.A., Parry, S.I., Morgan, M.A. and Mennuti, M.T.: Disseminated congenital neuroblastoma involving the placenta. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 121: 741–744, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Macafee, C.A.J., Fortune, D.W. and Beischer, N.A.: Non-immunological hydrops fetalis. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 77: 226–237, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Machin, G.A.: Hydrops revisited: literature review of 1,414 cases published in the 1980s. Am. J. Med. Genet. 34: 366–390, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. MacGregor, S.N., Socol, M.L., Pielet, B.W., Sholl, J.T. and Minogue, J.P.: Prediction of fetoplacental blood volume in isoimmunized pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 1493–1497, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Maeda, H., Shimokawa, H., Saton, S., Nakano, H. and Nunoue, T.: Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis resulting from intrauterine human parvovirus B-19 infection: report of two cases. Obstet. Gynecol. 72: 482–485, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Maidman, J.E., Yeager, C., Anderson, V., Makabali, G., O’Grady, J.P., Arce, J. and Tishler, D.M.: Prenatal diagnosis and management of nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 56: 571–576, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Mallmann, P, Gembruch, U., Mallmann, R. and Hansmann, M.: Investigations into a possible immunological origin of idiopathic nonimmune hydrops fetalis and initial results of prophylactic immune treatment of subsequent pregnancies. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 70: 35–40, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Manning, F.A., Heaman, M., Boyce, D. and Carter, L.J.: Intrauterine fetal tachypnea. Obstet. Gynecol. 58: 398–400, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Manning, F.A., Bowman, J.M., Lange, I.R. and Chamberlain, P.F.: Intrauterine transfusion in an Rh-immunized twin pregnancy: a case report of successful outcome and a review of the literature. Obstet. Gynecol. 65: 2S–65, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mark, Y., Rogers, B.B. and Oyer, C.E.: Diagnosis and incidence of fetal parvovirus infection in an autopsy series: II. DNA amplification. Pediatr. Pathol. 13: 381–386, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Matthews, C.D., Matthews, A.E.B. and Gilbey, B.E.: Antibody development in rhesus-negative patients following abortion. Lancet 11: 318–319, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. McCowan, L.M.E. and Becroft, D.M.O.: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, placental abnormalities, and gestational protein-uric hypertension. Obstet. Gynecol. 83: 813–817, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. McCoy, M.C., Katz, V.L., Gould, N. and Kuller, J.A.: Non-immune hydrops after 20 weeks gestation: review of 10 years experience with suggestions for management. Obstet. Gynecol. 85: 578–582, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. McFadden, D.E. and Taylor, G.P.: Cardiac abnormalities and nonimmune hydrops fetalis: a coincidental, not causal, relationship. Pediatr. Pathol. 9: 11–17, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Meizner, I.,Levy, A., Carmi, R. and Robinsin, C.: Niemann-Pick disease associated with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163:128–129,1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mentzer, W.C. and Collier, E.: Hydrops fetalis associated with erythrocyte G-6-PD deficiency and maternal ingestion of fava beans and ascorbic acid. J. Pediatr. 86: 565–567, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Metzman, R., Anand, A., DeGiulio, P.A. and Knisely, A.S.: Hepatic disease associated with intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection in a newborn premature infant. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 9: 119–114, 1989.Google Scholar
  181. Miller, D.F. and Petrie, S.J.: Fatal erythroblastosis fetalis secondary to ABO incompatibility. Obstet. Gynecol. 22: 773–777, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Miller, P.D., Smith, B.C. and Marinoff, D.N.: Theca-lutein ovarian cysts associated with homozygous a-thalassemia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 912–914, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Milner, P.F., Clegg, J.B. and Weatherall, D.J.: Haemoglobin-H disease due to a unique haemoglobin variant with an elongated a-chain. Lancet 1: 729–732, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Milunsky, A., Alpert, E., Frigoletto, F.D., Driscoll, S.G., McCluskey, R.T. and Colvin, R.B.: Prenatal diagnosis of the congenital nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics 59: 770–773, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Mittendorf, R. and Williams, M.A.: RH0(D) immunoglobulin (RhoGAM): how it came into being. Obstet. Gynecol. 77: 301–303, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Moerman, P., Eryns, J.P., Goddeeris, P. and Lauweryns, J.M.: Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis. A study of ten cases. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 106: 635–640, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Mogilner, B.M., Ashkenazy, M., Borenstein, R. and Lancet, M.: Hydrops fetalis caused by maternal indomethacin treatment. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 61: 183–185, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Moller, J.H., Lynch, R.P. and Edwards, J.E.: Fetal cardiac failure resulting from congenital anomalies of the heart. J. Pediatr. 68: 699–703, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Mollison, P.L.: Suppression of Rh-immunization by passively administered anti-Rh. Br. J. Haematol. 14: 1–4, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Montemagno, U., Stefano, M. di and Cardone, A.: Aspetti isoimmunologici della placenta nella incompatibilita Rh. In, Simpos. sui Problemi Ostetrico-Pediatrici della Sofferenza Fetale. Offic. Grafiche Stianti-Sanscasciano, Siena, Italy, 1966, pp. 649–655.Google Scholar
  191. Mor, Z., Schreyer, P., Wainraub, Z., Hayman, E. and Caspi, E.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis associated with angioosteohypertrophy (Klippel-Trenaunay) syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 1185–1186, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Morey, A.L., Nicolini, U., Welch, C.R., Economides, D., Chamberlain, P.F. and Cohen, B.J.: Parvovirus B 19 infection and transient fetal hydrops. Lancet 337: 496, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Moss, T.J. and Kaplan, L.: Association of hydrops fetalis with congenital neuroblastoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 132: 905–906, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Mostoufi-Zadeh, M., Weiss, L.M. and Driscoll, S.G.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis: a challenge in perinatal pathology. Hum. Pathol. 16: 785–789, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Moya, F.R., Grannum, P.A.T., Widness, J.A., Clemons, G.K., Copel, J.A. and Hobbins, J.C.: Erythropoietin in human fetuses with immune hemolytic anemia and hydrops fetalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 82: 353–358, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Murray, S. and Barron, S.L.: Rhesus isoimmunization after abortion. Br. Med. J. iii: 87–89, 1971.Google Scholar
  197. Naeye, R.L.: New observations in erythroblastosis fetalis. J.A.M.A. 200: 105–110, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Nakamura, Y., Komatsu, Y., Yano, H., Kitazono, S., Hosokawa, Y., Fukuda, S., Kawano, S., Nagasue, N., Matsunaga, T., Aiko, Y., Hashimoto, T. and Morimatsu, M.: Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis: a clinicopathological study of 50 autopsy cases. Pediatr. Pathol. 7: 19–30, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Nakayama, R., Yamada, D., Steinmiller, V., Hsia, E. and Hale, R.W.: Hydrops fetalis secondary to Bart hemoglobinopathy. Obstet. Gynecol. 67: 176–180, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Nalbandian, R.M., Henry, R.L., Camp, F.R., Wolf, P.L. and Evans, T.N.: Embryonic, fetal, and neonatal hemoglobin synthesis: relationship to abortion and thalassemia. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 26: 185–191, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Nathan, D.G.: Thalassemia: a progress report on applied molecular biology. N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 1122–1123, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Nelson, A., Peterson, L.A., Frampton, B. and Sly, W.S.: Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (ß-glucuronidase deficiency) presenting as nonimmune hydrops fetalis. J. Pediatr. 101: 574–576, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Nerlich, A., Schwarz, T.F., Roggendorf, M., Roggendorf, H., Ostermeyer, E., Schramm, T. and Gloning, K.-P: Parvovirus B19-infected erythroblasts in fetal cord blood. Lancet 337: 310, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Newton, E.R., Louis, F., Dalton, M.E. and Feingold, M.: Fetal neuroblastoma and catecholamine-induced maternal hypertension. Obstet. Gynecol. 65: 49S–52S, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Nicolaides, K.H., Soothill, P.W., Clewell, W.H., Rodeck, C.H., Mibashan, R.S. and Campbell, S.: Fetal haemoglobin measurement of red cell isoimmunization. Lancet 1: 1073–1075, 1988a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Nicolaides, K.H., Thilaganathan, B., Rodeck, C.H. and Mibashan, R.S.: Erythroblastosis and reticulocytosis in anemic fetuses. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 1063–1065, 1988b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Nicolaides, K.H., Thilaganathan, B. and Mibashan, R.S.: Cordocentesis in the investigation of fetal erythropoiesis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161: 1197–1200, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Nicolini, U., Talbert, D.G., Fisk, N.M. and Rodeck, C.H.: Pathophysiology of pressure changes during intrauterine transfusion. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160: 1139–1145, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Nimrod, C., Davies, D., Harder, J., Iwanicki, S., Kondo, C., Takahashi, Y., Maloney, J., Persaud, D. and Nicholson, S.: Ultrasound evaluation of tachycardia-induced hydrops in the fetal lamb. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 655–659, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Novak, P.M., Sander, M., Yang, S.S. and Oeyen, PT.V.: Report of fourteen cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis in association with hemorrhagic endovasculitis of the placenta. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 165: 945–950, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Östör, A.G. and Fortune, D.W.: Tuberous sclerosis initially seen as hydrops fetalis. Report of a case and review of the literature. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 102: 34–39, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Özmen, S., Seçkin, N., Turhan, N.Ö., Dilmen, G. and Dilmen. U.: Fetal methemoglobinemia: a cause of nonimmune hydrops. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173: 232–233, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Olson, R.W., Nishibatake, M., Arya, S. and Gilbert, E.F.: Non-immunologic hydrops fetalis due to intrauterine closure of fetal foramen ovale. Birth Defects 23 (1): 433–442, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Orkin, S.H. and Michelson, A.: Partial deletion of the a-globin structural gene in human a-thalassemia. Nature (Lond.) 286: 538–540, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Orkin, S.H. and Nathan, D.G.: Current concepts in genetics. N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 710–714, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis in Noonan’ syndrome. Am. J. Dis. Child. 141: 478–479, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Paradinas, EJ., Fisher, R.A., Browne, P. and Newlands, E.S.: Diploid hydatidiform moles with fetal red blood cells in molar villi. 1: Pathology, incidence, and prognosis. J. Pathol. 181: 183–188, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Pattison, J.R., Jones, S.E., Hodgson, J., Davis, L.R., White, J.M., Stroud, C.E. and Murtoza, L.: Parvovirus infections and hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia. Lancet i: 664–665, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Pattison, N. and Roberts, A.: The management of severe erythroblastosis fetalis by fetal transfusion: survival of transfused adult erythrocytes in the fetus. Obstet. Gynecol. 74: 901–904, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Pearson, H.A., Shanklin, D.R. and Brodine, C.R.: Alphathalassemia as cause of nonimmunological hydrops. Am. J. Dis. Child. 109: 168–172, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Perkins, R.P.: Hydrops fetalis and stillbirth in a male glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient fetus possibly due to maternal ingestion of sulfisoxazole. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 111: 379–381, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Perkins, D.G., Kopp, C.M. and Haust, M.D.: Placental infiltration in congenital neuroblastoma: a case study with ultra-structure. Histopathology 4: 383–389, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Perlin, B.M., Pomerance, J.J. and Schifrin, B.S.: Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 57: 584–588, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Peschle, C., Mavilio, R, Care, A., Migliaccio, G., Migliaccio, A.R., Salvo, G., Samoggia, P., Petti, S., Guerriero, R., Marinucci, M., Lazzaro, D., Russo, G. and Mastroberardino, G.: Haemoglobin switching in human embryos: asynchrony of -* a and e y-globin switches in primitive and definitive erythropoietic lineage. Nature (Lond.) 313: 235–238, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Peters, M.T. and Nicolaides, K.H.: Cordocentesis for the diagnosis and treatment of human fetal parvovirus infection. Obstet. Gynecol. 75: 501–504, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Pielet, B.W., Socol, M.L., MacGregor, S.N., Ney, J.A. and Dooley, S.L.: Cordocentesis: an appraisal of risks. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 1497–1500, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Pillay, D., Patou, G., Hurt, S., Kibbler, C.C. and Griffiths, ED.: Parvovirus B19 outbreak in a children’ ward. Lancet 339: 107–109, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Pilz, I., Schweikhart, G. and Kaufmann, P.: Zur Abgrenzung normaler, artefizieller und pathologischer Strukturen in reifen menschlichen Plazentarzotten. III. Morphometrische Untersuchungen bei Rhesus-Inkompabilität. Arch. Gynecol. 229: 137–154, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Pootrakul, S., Wasi, P. and Na-Nakorn, S.: Haemoglobin Bart’ hydrops foetalis in Thailand. Ann. Hum. Genet. 30: 293–311, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Porter, H.J., Quantrill, A.M. and Flehming, K.A.: B19 parvovirus infection of myocardial cells. Lancet 1: 535–536, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Price, J.R.: Rh sensitization by hydatidiform mole. N. Engl. J. Med. 278: 1021, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Pringle, K.C., Weiner, C.E, Soper, R.T. and Kealey, P.: Sacrococcygeal teratoma. Fetal Ther. 2: 80–87, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Pryde, P.G., Nugent, C.E., Pridjian, G., Barr, M. and Faix, R.G.: Spontaneous resolution of nonimmune hydrops fetalis secondary to human parvovirus B19 infection. Obstet. Gynecol. 79: 859–861, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Public Health Laboratory Service Working Party on Fifth Disease: Prospective study of human parvovirus (B-19) infection in pregnancy. Br. Med. J. 300: 1166–1170, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Pustilnik, T.B. and Cohen, A.W.: Parvovirus B19 infection in a twin pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 83: 834–836, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Queenan, J.T. and Douglas, G.R.: Intrauterine transfusion: a preliminary report. Obstet. Gynecol. 25: 308–321, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Queenan, J.T. and Nakamoto, M.: Postpartum immunization: the hypothetical hazard of manual removal of the placenta. Report of a study. Obstet. Gynecol. 23: 392–395, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Rabinowitz, P., Harris, E.J. and Friedman, I.S.: Theca-lutein cysts of the ovaries. A case of erythroblastosis with abruptio placentae and acute renal failure. J.A.M.A. 177: 509–510, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Radunovic, N., Lockwood, C.J., Alvarez, M., Plecas, D., Chitkara, U. and Berkovitz, R.L.: The severely anemic and hydropic isoimmune fetus: changes in fetal hematocrit associated with intrauterine death. Obstet. Gynecol. 79: 390–393, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Ravindranath, Y., Paglia, D.E., Warrier, I., Valentine, W., Nakatani, M. and Brockway, R.A.: Glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency as a cause of hydrops fetalis. N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 258–261, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Reece, E.A., Gabrielli, S., Abdalla, M., O’Connor, T.Z. and Hobbins, J.C.: Reassessment of the utility of fetal umbilical vein diameter in the management of isoimmunization. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 937–938, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Rice, G.E., Mostoufi-Zadeh, M., Kolodny, E.H. and Driscoll, S.G.: Hydrops fetalis in Gaucher’ disease. Teratology 29: 53A–54A, 1984.Google Scholar
  243. Rodeck, C.H., Nicolaides, K.H., Warsof, S.L., Fysh, W.J., Gamsu, H.R. and Kemp, J.R.: The management of severe rhesus isoimmunization by fetoscopic intravascular transfusions. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150: 769–774, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Rodin, A.E. and Nichols, M.M.: Congestive heart failure in the fetus and during the first day of life. Texas Med. 72: 44–48, 1975.Google Scholar
  245. Rodis, J.F., Hovick, T.J., Quinn, D.L., Rosengren, S.S. and Tattersall, P.: Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 72: 733–738, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Rodis, J.F., Quinn, D.L., Gary, G.W., Anderson, L.J., Rosengren, S., Cartter, M.L., Campbell, W.A. and Vintzileos, A.M.: Management and outcomes of pregnancies complicated by human B19 parvovirus infection: a prospective study. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163: 1168–1171, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Rodis, J.F., Borgida, A.E, Wilson, M., Egan, JEX., Leo, M.V., Odibo, A.O. and Campbell, W.A.: Management of parvovirus infection in pregnancy and outcomes of hydrops: a survey of members of perinatal obstetricians. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 179: 985–988, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Rönisch, P. and Kleihauer, E.: Alpha-Thalassämie mit HbH und Bart’ in einer deutschen Familie. KIM. Wochenschr. 45: 1193–1200, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Rogers, B.B.: Histopathologic variability of finding erythroid inclusions with intranuclear parvovirus B19 infection. Pediatr. Pathol. 12: 883–889, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Rogers, B.B., Mark, Y. and Oyer, C.E.: Diagnosis and incidence of fetal parvovirus infection in an autopsy series: I. Histology. Pediatr. Pathol. 13: 371–379, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Rogers, B.B., Rogers, Z.R. and Timmons, C.F.: Polymerase chain reaction amplification of archival material for parvovirus B19 in children with transient erythroblastopenia of childhood. Pediatr. Pathol. Lab. Med. 16: 471–478, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Rogers, B.B., Bloom, S.L. and Buchanan, G.R.: Autosomal dominantly inherited Diamond-Blackfan anemia resulting in non-immune hydrops. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 805–807, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Rubin, E.M. and Kan, Y.W.: A simple sensitive prenatal test for hydrops fetalis caused by a-thalassemia. Lancet 1: 75–77, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Sacks, L.M., Polin, J.I. and Breckenridge, J.: Congential chylothorax presenting as hydrops fetalis. A case report. J. Reprod. Med. 28: 341–344, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Sahakian, V., Weiner, C.E, Naides, S.J., Williamson, R.A. and Scharosch, L.L.: Intrauterine transfusion treatment of non-immune hydrops fetalis secondary to human parvovirus B19 infection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164: 1090–1091, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Saltzman, D.H., Frigoletto, ED., Harlow, B.L., Barss, V.A. and Benacerraf, B.R.: Sonographic evaluation of hydrops fetalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 74: 106–111, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Samra, J.S., Obhrai, M.S. and Constantine, G.: Parvovirus infection in pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 73: 832–834, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Santolaya, J., Alley, D., Jaffe, R. and Warsof, S.L.: Antenatal classification of hydrops fetalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 79: 256–259, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Scheib, J.S. and Waxman, J.: Congenital heart block in successive pregnancies: a case report and evaluation of risk with therapeutic consideration. Obstet. Gynecol. 73: 481–484, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Schumacher, B. and Moise, K.J.: Fetal transfusion for red blood cell alloimmunization in pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 88: 137–150, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Schwanitz, G., Zerris, K., Niesen, M., Haverkamp, F. and Schmid, G.: Hydrops fetalis as an indication for prenatal chromosome analysis with the example of the diagnosis of a duplication 15q11 and 17q25 due to familial translocation 15/17. Ann. Génét. 31: 186–189, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Schwartz, S.M., Visekul, C., Laxova, R., McPherson, E. and Gilbert, E.F.: Idiopathic hydrops fetalis report of 4 patients including 2 affected sibs. Am. J. Med. Genet. 8: 59–66, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Schwarz, T.F., Roggendorf, M., Hottenträger, B., Deinhardt, B., Enders, G., Gloning, K.P., Schramm, T. and Hansmann, M.: Human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. Lancet ii: 566–567, 1988.Google Scholar
  264. Schwarz, T.F., Nerlich, A., Hottenträger, B., Jäger, G., Wiest, I., Kantimm, S., Roggendorf, H., Schultz, M., Gloning, K.P., Schramm, T., Holzgreve, W. and Roggendorf, M.: Parvovirus B19 infection of the fetus. Histology and in situ hybridization. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 95: 121–126, 1991.Google Scholar
  265. Scott, J.R., Beer, A.E., Guy, L.R., Liesch, M. and Elbert, G.: Pathogenesis of Rh immunization in primigravidas. Fetomaternal versus maternofetal bleeding. Obstet. Gynecol. 49: 9–14, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Seeds, J.W., Herbert, W.N.P., Bowles, W.A. and Cefalo, R.C.: Recurrent idiopathic fetal hydrops: results of prenatal therapy. Obstet. Gynecol. 64: 305–335, 1984.Google Scholar
  267. Seeds, J.W., Bowes, W.A. and Chescheir, N.C.: Echogenic venous turbulence is a critical feature of successful intravascular transfusion. Obstet. Gynecol. 73: 488–490, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Seifer, D.B., Ferguson, J.E., Behrens, C.M., Zemel, S., Stevenson, D.K. and Ross, J.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis in association with hemangioma of the umbilical cord. Obstet. Gynecol. 66: 283–286, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Seppälä, M., Aula, P., Rapola, J., Karjalainen, O., Huttunen, N.-P. and Ruoslahti, E.: Congenital nephrotic syndrome: prenatal diagnosis and genetic counselling by estimation of amniotic-fluid and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. Lancet 1: 123–125, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Seward, J.F. and Zusman, J.: Hydrops fetalis associated with small-bowel volvulus. Lancet ii: 52–53, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Sexauer, C.L., Graham, H.L., Starling, K.A. and Fernbach, D.J.: A test for abnormal hemoglobins in umbilical cord blood. Am. J. Dis. Child. 130: 805–806, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Sheikh, A.U., Ernest, J.M. and O’hea, M.: Long-term outcome in fetal hydrops from parvovirus B 19 infection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 337–341, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Shimokawa, H., Hara, K., Fukuda, A. and Nakano, H.: Idiopathic hydrops fetalis successfully treated in utero. Obstet. Gynecol. 71: 984–986, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Shiraishi, S., Kinukawa, N., Nakano, H. and Sueishi, K.: Immunohistochemical distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor in the human placenta associated with hydrops fetalis. Pediatr. Pathol. Lab. Med. 17: 65–81, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Silber, D.L. and Durnim, R.E.: Intrauterine atrial tachycardia: associated with massive edema in a newborn. Am. J. Dis. Child. 117: 722–726, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Silver, M.M., Beverley, D.W., Valberg, L.S., Cutz, E., Phillips, M.J. and Shaheed, W.A.: Perinatal hemochromatosis. Clinical, morphologic, and quantitative iron studies. Am. J. Pathol. 128: 538–554, 1989.Google Scholar
  277. Silverstein, A.J. and Kanbour, A.I.: Repetitive idiopathic fetal hydrops. Obstet. Gynecol. 57: 18S–21S, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Sklansky, M., Greenberg, M., Lucas, V. and Gruslin-Giroux, A.: Intrapericardial teratoma in a twin fetus: diagnosis and management. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 807–809, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Skogerboe, K.J., West, S.E, Smith, C., Terashita, S.T., LeCrone, C.N., Deter, J.C. and Tait, J.F.: Screening for a-thalassemia. Correlation of hemoglobin H inclusion bodies with DNA-determined genotype. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 116: 1012–1018, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Skopec, L.L. and Lakatua, D.J.: Non-immune fetal hydrops with hepatic hemangioendothelioma and KasabachMerritt syndrome: A case report. Pediatr. Pathol. 9: 87–93, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Slikke, J.W. v.d. and Balk, A.G.: Hydramnios with hydrops fetalis and disseminated fetal neuroblastoma. Obstet. Gynecol. 55: 250–253, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Smith, C.R., Chan, H.S.L. and de Sa, D.J.: Placental involvement in congenital neuroblastoma. J. Clin. Pathol. 34: 785–789, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Socol, M.L., MacGregor, S.N., Pielet, B.W., Tamura, R.K. and Sabbagha, R.E.: Percutaneous umbilical transfusion in severe rhesus isoimmunization: resolution of fetal hydrops. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 1369–1375, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Soothill, P.: Intrauterine blood transfusion for non-immune hydrops fetalis due to parvovirus B19 infection. Lancet 336: 121–122, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Srivastara, A. and Lu, L.: Replication of B19 parvovirus in highly enriched haematopoietic progenitor cells from normal human bone marrow. J. Virol. 62: 3059–3063, 1988.Google Scholar
  286. Stedman, C.M., Quinlan, R.W., Huddleston, J.F., Cruz, A.C. and Kellner, K.R.: Rh sensitization after third-trimester fetal death. Obstet. Gynecol. 71: 461–463, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Steinke, J., Gries, F.A. and Driscoll, S.G.: In vitro studies of insulin inactivation with reference to erythroblastosis fetalis. Blood 30: 359–363, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Stevens, D.C., Hilliard, J.K., Schreiner, R.L., Hurwitz, R.A., Murrell, R., Mirkin, L.D., Bonderman, P.W. and Nolen, P.A.: Supraventricular tachycardia with edema, ascites, and hydrops in fetal sheep. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 142: 316–322, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Stocker, J.T. and Singer, D.B.: Human parvovirus B19 infection, hydrops fetalis, and possibly myocarditis. Annotated bibliography. Pediatr. Pathol. 8: 356–358, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Strauss, L. and Driscoll, S.G.: Congenital neuroblastoma involving the placenta. Reports of two cases. Pediatrics 34: 23–31, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Suh, Y.K.: a-Thalassemia—differential diagnosis. J. Perinatol. 14: 319–321, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Swain, S. and Cameron, A.D.: Establishing the cause of nonimmune hydrops. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176: 951, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Szulman, A.E.: The A, B and H blood-group antigens in human placenta. N. Engl. J. Med. 286: 1028–1031, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Taylor, J.F.: Sensitization of Rh-negative daughters by their Rh-positive mothers. N. Engl. J. Med. 276: 547–551, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Taylor, EV., Scott, J.S., Gerbis, L.M., Esscher, E. and Scott, O.: Maternal antibodies against fetal cardiac antigens in congenital complete heart block. N. Engl. J. Med. 315: 667–672, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Terheggen, H.G. and Kleihauer, E.: Die a-Thalassämie. Eine kasuistische Mitteilung. Z. Kinderheilkd. 103: 182–191, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Thilaganathan, B., Salvesen, D.R., Abbas, A., Ireland, R.M. and Nicolaides, K.H.: Fetal plasma erythropoietin concentration in red blood cell-isoimmunized pregnancies. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 1292–1297, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Thumasathit, B., Nondasuta, A., Silpisornkosol, S., Lousuebsakul, B., Unchalipongse, E and Mangkornkanok, M.: Hydrops fetalis associated with Bart’ hemoglobin in northern Thailand. J. Pediatr. 73: 132–138, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Treadwell, M.C., Sherer, D.M., Sacks, A.J., Ghezzi, F. and Romero, R.: Successful treatment of recurrent non-immune hydrops secondary to fetal hyperthyroidism. Obstet. Gynecol. 87: 838–840, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Turski, D.M., Shahidi, N., Visekul, C. and Gilbert, E.: Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131: 586–587, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Uno, Y., Taniguchi, A. and Tanaka, E.: Histochemical studies in Wolman’ disease—report of an autopsy case accompanied with a large amount of milky ascites. Acta Pathol. Jpn. 23: 779–790, 1973.Google Scholar
  302. Vaughan, J.I., Manning, M., Warwick, R.M., Letsky, E.A., Murray, N.A. and Roberts, I.A.G. Inhibition of erythroid progenitor cells by anti-Kell antibodies in fetal alloimmune anemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 798–803, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Vedvick, T.S., Wheeler, S.A. and Koenig, H.M.: Heterogeneity of fetal hemoglobin in severe a-thalassemia. Biol. Neonate 36: 181–184, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Veille, J.C., Sunderland, C. and Bennett, R.M.: Complete heart block in a fetus associated with maternal Sjögren’ syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 151: 660–661, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Verger, P., Martin, C., Dubecq, J.-E, Kermarec, Y. and Lomazzi, R.: Étude pathologique et therapeutique de l’anasarque foeto-placentaire. Arch. Fr. Pediatr. 20: 417–436, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Vetter, V.L. and Rashkind, W.J.: Congenital complete heart block and connective-tissue disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 236–238, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Veyer, I.B. v.d. and Moise, K.J.: Fetal RhD typing by polymerase chain reaction in pregnancies complicated by rhesus alloimmunization. Obstet. Gynecol. 88: 1061–1067, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Veyer, I.B. v.d., Subramanian, S.B., Hudson, K.M., Werch, J., Moise, K.J. and Hughes, M.R.: Prenatal diagnosis of the RhD fetal blood type on amniotic fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Obstet. Gynecol. 87: 419–422, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Vidyasagar, D. and Haworth, J.C.: Placental dimensions, cell size, and cell number in erythroblastosis fetalis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115: 267–270, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Villaespesa, A.R., Mier, M.P.S., Ferrer, EL., Baleriola, I.A. and Gonzalez, J.I.R.: Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis: an etiopathogenetic approach through the postmortem study of 59 patients. Am. J. Med. Genet. 35: 274–279, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Ville, Y., Proudler, A., Abbas, A. and Nicolaides, K.: Atrial natriuretic factor concentration in normal, growth-retarded, anemic, and hydropic fetuses. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 171: 777–783, 1994a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Ville, Y., Proudler, A., Kuhn, P and Nicolaides, K.: Aldosterone concentration in normal, growth-retarded, anemic, and hydropic fetuses. Obstet. Gynecol. 84: 511–514, 1994b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Vintzileos, A.M., Campbell, W.A., Soberman, S.M. and Nochimson, D.J.: Fetal atrial flutter and X-linked dominant vitamin D-resistant rickets. Obstet. Gynecol. 65: 39S–44S, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Vogel, H., Kornman, M., Ledet, S.C., Rajagopalan, L., Taber, L. and McClain, K.: Congenital parvovirus infection. Pediatr. Pathol. Lab. Med. 17: 903–912, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Warren, R.C., Butler, J., Morsman, J.M., McKenzie, C. and Rodeck, C.H.: Does chorionic villus sampling cause fetomaternal hemorrhage? Lancet 1: 691, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Watson, J. and Campbell, S.: Antenatal evaluation and management in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Obstet. Gynecol. 67: 589–593, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Watson, W.J. and Fiegen, M.M.: Fetal thyrotoxicosis associated with nonimmune hydrops. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172: 1039–1040, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Weiland, H.T., Vermey-Keers, C., Salimans, M.M.M., Fleuren, G.J., Verwey, R.A. and Anderson, M.J.: Parvovirus B19 associated with fetal abnormality. Lancet 1: 682–683, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Weiner, C.P. and Thompson, I.B.: Direct treatment of fetal supraventricular tachycardia after failed transplacental therapy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158: 570–573, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Weiner, C.P., Sipes, S.L. and Wenstrom, K.: The effect of fetal age upon normal fetal laboratory values and venous pressure. Obstet. Gynecol. 79: 713–718, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Weiner, C., Varner, M., Pringle, K., Hein, H., Williamson, R. and Smith, W.L.: Antenatal diagnosis and palliative treatment of nonimmune hydrops fetalis secondary to extralobar sequestration. Obstet. Gynecol. 68: 275–280, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Wentworth, P.: The placenta in cases of hemolytic disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 98: 283–289, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Westgren, M., Eastman, W.N., Ghandourah, S. and Woodhouse, N.: Intrauterine hypercalcaemia and non-immune hydrops fetalis—relationship to the Williams syndrome. Prenatal Diagn. 8: 333–337, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Whitney, J.B. and Popp, R.A.: Thalassemia. Alpha-thalassemia in laboratory mice. Am. J. Pathol. 116: 523–525, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Wiener, A.S., Wexler, I.B. and Schutta, E.J.: A pair of male fraternal twins with contrasting manifestations of Rh hemolytic disease. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 11: 17–28, 1962.Google Scholar
  326. Wiggins, J.W., Bowes, W., Clewell, W., Manco-Johnson, M., Manchester, D., Johnson, R., Appareti, K. and Wolfe, R.R.: Echocardiographic diagnosis and intravenous digoxin management of fetal tachyarrhythmias and congestive heart failure. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140: 202–204, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Williamson, R., Eskdale, J., Coleman, D.V., Niazi, M., Loeffler, F.E. and Modell, B.M.: Direct gene analysis of chorionic villi: a possible technique for first-trimester antenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies. Lancet 11: 1125–1127, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Windebank, K.P., Bridges, N.A., Ostman-Smith, I. and Stevens, J.E.: Hydrops fetalis due to abnormal lymphatics. Arch. Dis. Child. 62: 198–200, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Wood, W.G., Bunch, C., Kelley, S., Gunn, Y. and Breckon, G.: Control of haemoglobin switching by a developmental clock? Nature (Lond.) 313: 320–323, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Yamakawa, Y., Oka, H., Hori, S., Arai, T. and Izumi, R.: Detection of human parvovirus B19 DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction. Obstet. Gynecol. 86: 126–129, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Younis, J.S. and Granat, M.: Insufficient transplacental digoxin transfer in severe hydrops fetalis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 1268–1269, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Zeng, Y.-T. and Hunag, S.-Z.: a-Globin gene organisation and prenatal diagnosis of a-thalassemia in Chinese. Lancet i: 304–307, 1985.Google Scholar
  333. Zipursky, A. and Israels, L.G.: The pathogenesis and prevention of Rh immunization. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 97: 1245–1257, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Zwi, L.J. and Becroft, D.M.O.: Intrauterine aplastic anemia and fetal hydrops: a case report. Pediatr. Pathol. 5: 199–205, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 2
  1. 1.University Medical CenterUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen FakultätRheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule AachenAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations