Early Development of the Human Placenta

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann


For many years understanding placental pathology was thought to demand only limited knowledge of implantation and early placental development, as disturbances of these early steps of placentation seemed to cause abortion, rather than affect placental structure and function. Increasing experience with assisted fertilization, however, has taught us that a high percentage of these cases have impaired fetal and neonatal outcome, such as an increased incidence of intrauterine growth retardation and retroplacental hematoma, as well as increased perinatal mortality (Beck & Heywinkel, 1990). The causal connections are still unknown, although there are some arguments that placental causes must be discussed. It is speculated that improper conditions during implantation handicap early development and finally result in inappropriate functioning of the fetoplacental unit.


Human Placenta Apical Plasma Membrane Uterine Epithelium Carnegie Inst Uterine Epithelial Cell 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 2
  1. 1.University Medical CenterUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen FakultätRheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule AachenAachenGermany

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