Architecture of Normal Villous Trees

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann


The ramifications of the villous trees can be subdivided into segments that differ mainly as to caliber, stromal structure, vessel structure, and position within the villous tree (Figure 46). Five villous types have been described (Kaufmann et al., 1979; Sen et al., 1979; Castellucci & Kaufmann, 1982a,b; Kaufmann, 1982; Castellucci et al., 1984, 1990; Burton, 1987), some of which can be further subdivided. As is discussed, all villous types derive from single precursors, the mesenchymal villi, which correspond to the tertiary villi of the early stages of placentation.


Human Placenta Capillary Loop Villous Tree Intervillous Space Fetal Vessel 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Pathology and Reproductive MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.University Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen Fakultät, Rheinisch-Westfälische TechnischeHochschule AachenAachenGermany

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