Advertisement

Choriocarcinoma

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann

Abstract

Choriocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm composed exclusively of cytotrophoblast and syncytio-trophoblast. In this discussion, only the choriocarcinoma of “gestational trophoblastic neoplasia” is covered. The nature of this tumor was first correctly identified by Marchand (1895). Teacher’s detailed observations (1903) followed Marchanda description. The early history of this tumor, the “deciduoma” as it was first known, has been admirably recounted by Ober and Fass (1961). Until the neoplastic elements of choriocarcinoma were ultimately shown to be derived from the embryo, their derivation had been in dispute. Ewing (1910) was the first investigator to differentiate between the various types of trophoblastic neoplasm. He introduced the terms invasive mole, syncytial endometritis, and syncytioma.

Keywords

Ectopic Pregnancy Normal Pregnancy Hydatidiform Mole Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Trophoblastic Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acosta-Sison, H.: Apparent metastatic chorioepitheli-oma without demonstrable primary chorionic malignancy in the uterus: report of 3 cases; a new possible explanation of its occurrence. Obstet. Gynecol. 10: 165–168, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta-Sison, H.: The relative frequency of various anatomic sites as the point of first metastasis in 32 cases of chorionepithelioma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:1149–1152, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Acosta-Sison, H.: Choriocarcinoma from July 4, 1963 to June 30, 1965. Philippine J. Surg. 21:41–42, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. Amiel, J.-L., and Lebovici, S.: Choriocarcinoma and the HL-A2 antigen (MAC). Rev. Eur. étud. Clin. Biol. 15:191–192, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arai, K., Soma, H., and Hokano, M.: Ultrastructure of trophoblastic tumor cells. J. Clin. Electron Microsc. 9:5–6, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. Aranda, J.M., and Martinez, I.: Incidence of choriocarcinoma in Puerto Rico: a 15-year study. Cancer 23: 506–507, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkin, N.B.: Sex chromosome studies on trophoblast. In, The Early Conceptus, Normal and Abnormal, pp. 130–134. University Court of the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, 1965.Google Scholar
  8. Axe, S.R., Klein, V.R., and Woodruff, J.D.: Choriocarcinoma of the ovary. Obstet. Gynecol. 66:111–114, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagshawe, K.D.: Hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Br. Med. J. 1:1509–1510, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bagshawe, K.D.: Choriocarcinoma. The Clinical Biology of the Trophoblast and Its Tumors. Williams &; Wilkins, Baltimore, 1969.Google Scholar
  11. Bagshawe, K.D.: Pulmonary hypertension in gestational choriocarcinoma: a West London syndrome? Lancet 2:223, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bagshawe, K.D., and Noble, M.I.M.: Cardiorespiratory aspects of trophoblastic tumors. Q. J. Med. 35: 39–54, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bagshawe, K.D., Golding, P.R., and Orr, A.H.: Choriocarcinoma after hydatidiform mole: studies related to effectiveness of follow-up practice after hydatidiform mole. Br. Med. J. 2:733–737, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bagshawe, K.D., Rawlins, G., Pike, M.C., and Lawler, S.D.: ABO blood-groups in trophoblastic neoplasia. Lancet 1:553–557, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baltazar, J.C.: Epidemiological features of choriocarcinoma. Bull. W.H.O. 54:523–532, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bardawil, W.A., and Toy, B.L.: The natural history of choriocarcinoma: problems of immunity and spontaneous regression. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 80:197–261, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnes, A.E., Liwnicz, B.H., Schellhaus, H.F., Alt-shuler, G., Aron, B.S., and Lippert, W.A.: Successful treatment of placental choriocarcinoma metastatic to brain followed by primary brain glioblastoma. Gynecol. Oncol. 13:108–114, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beer, A.E., and Billingham, R.E.: The Immunobiology of Mammalian Reproduction. Prentice-Hall, Engle-wood Cliffs, NJ, 1976.Google Scholar
  19. Benjamin, F., and Rorat, E.: Primary gestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131: 343–345, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Benson, P.F., Goldsmith, L.L.G., and Rankin, G.L.S.: Massive foetal haemorrhage into maternal circulation as a complication of choriocarcinoma. Br. Med. J. 1:841–842, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blackburn, G.K.: Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage due to choriocarcinoma of the uterus. J. Pediatr. 89: 680–681, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bogaert, L.-J. van, and Staquet, J.-P.: Chorionepithelio-sis: a rare benign trophoblastic disease. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 56:69–73, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brewer, J.I., and Gerbie, A.B.: Early development of choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 94:692–705, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brewer, J.I., and Mazur, M.T.: Gestational choriocarcinoma: its origin in the placenta during seemingly normal pregnancy. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 5:267–277, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brewer, J.I., Rinehart, J.J., and Dunbar, R.W.: Choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 81:574–583, 1961.Google Scholar
  26. Brewer, J.I., Smith, R.T., and Pratt, G.B.: Choriocarcinoma. Absolute 5 year survival rates of 122 patients treated by hysterectomy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 85:841–843, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brewer, J.I., Gerbie, A.B., Dolkart, R.E., Skom, J.H., Nagle, R.G., and Torok, E.E.: Chemotherapy in trophoblastic diseases. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 90: 566–578, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Buckell, E.W.C., and Owen, T.K.: Chorionepithelioma in mother and infant. 61:329–330, 1954.Google Scholar
  29. Carlson, J.A., Day, T.G., Kuhns, J.G., Howell, R.S., and Masterson, B.J.: Endoarterial pulmonary metastasis of malignant trophoblast associated with a term intrauterine pregnancy. Gynecol. Oncol. 17:241–248,1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carr, D.H.: Trophoblast growth in the lungs of mice. Obstet. Gynecol. 54:461–466, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Carson, S.A., Stovall, T., Umstot, E., Andersen, R., Ling, F, and Buster, J.E.: Rising human chorionic somatomammotropin predicts ectopic pregnancy rupture following methotrexate chemotherapy. Fertil. Steril. 51:593–597, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cheng, H.-M., and Johnson, P.M.: Specificity of trophoblast-reactive antibodies in human pregnancy. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 112:1081, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cinader, B., Hayley, M.A., Rider, W.D., and Warwick, O.H.: Immunotherapy of a patient with choriocarcinoma. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 84:306–309, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cunanan, R.G., Lippes, J., and Tancinco, P.A.: Choriocarcinoma of the ovary with coexisting normal pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 55:669–672, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Daamen, C.B.F., and Bloem, G.W.D.: Chorioepitheli-oma in mother and child. Ned. Tid. Geneesk. 105: 651–656, 1961;Google Scholar
  36. Daamen, C.B.F., and Bloem, G.W.D.: Chorioepitheli-oma in mother and child. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 68:144–149, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dawood, M.Y.: Serum progesterone and serum human chorionic gonadotropin in gestational and nongesta-tional choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 123:762–765, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Delfs, E.: Chorionic gonadotrophin determinations in patients with hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 80:125–142, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Deligdisch, L., Driscoll, S.G., and Goldstein, DP.: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms: morphologic correlates of therapeutic response. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 130:801–806, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Doniach, I., Crookston, J.H., and Cope, T.I.: Attempted treatment of a patient with choriocarcinoma by immunization with her husband’s cells. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 65:553–556, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dougherty, C.M., Cunningham, C., and Mickal, A.: Choriocarcinoma with metastasis in a postmenopausal woman. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 132:700–701, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Driscoll, S.G.: Choriocarcinoma: an “incidental finding” within a term placenta. Obstet. Gynecol. 21: 96–101, 1963.Google Scholar
  43. Driscoll, S.G.: Choriocarcinoma following delivery. Lab. Med. 48:21A, 1983.Google Scholar
  44. Duncan, D.A., and Mazur, M.T.: Trophoblastic tumors: ultrastructural comparison of choriocarcinoma and placental-site trophoblastic tumor. Hum. Pathol. 20: 370–381, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dyke, P.C., and Fink, L.M.: Latent choriocarcinoma. Cancer 20:150–154, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Eckstein, R.P., Russell, P., Friedlaender, M., Tatter sail, M.H.N., and Bradfield, A.: Metastasizing placental site trophoblastic tumor: a case study. Hum. Pathol. 16:632–636, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Edwards, R.G., Howe, C.W.S., and Johnson, M.H., eds.: Immunobiology of Trophoblast. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1975.Google Scholar
  48. Ehrman, R.L., and Gliserman, L.E.: Choriocarcinoma: growth patterns in hamster tissues. Nature 202:404–406, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eiston, C.W.: Cellular reaction to choriocarcinoma. J. Pathol. 97:261–268, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Evans, K.T., and Hendrickse, P. de V.: Pulmonary changes in malignant trophoblastic disease. Br. J. Radiol. 38:161–171, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ewing, J.: Chorioma. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 10:366–392, 1910.Google Scholar
  52. Ewing, J.R.: Neoplastic Diseases. 4th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1941.Google Scholar
  53. Fahrner, R.J., McQueeney, A.J., Mosely, J.M., and Petersen, R.W.: Trophoblastic pulmonary thrombosis with cor pulmonale: report of a case due to malignant hydatidiform mole of five years’ duration. J. A.M.A. 170:1898–1901, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Feldman, K.: Choriocarcinoma with neonatal anemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 296:880, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fine, G., Smith, R.W., and Pachter, M.R.: Primary extragenital choriocarcinoma in the male subject: case report and review of the literature. Am. J. Med. 32:776–794, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Finkler, N.J., Berkowitz, R.S., Driscoll, S.G., Goldstein, D.P., and Bernstein, M.R.: Clinical experience with placental site trophoblastic tumors at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center. Obstet. Gynecol. 71:854–857, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fischer, H.E., Lichtiger, B., and Cox, I.: Expression of Rh0(D) antigen in choriocarcinoma of the uterus in an Rh0(D)-negative patient: report of a case. Hum. Pathol. 16:1165–1167, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fox, H., and Laurini, R.N.: Intraplacental choriocarcinoma: report of two cases. J. Clin. Pathol. 41:1085–1088, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gallmeier, W.M., Bertrams, J., Kuweit, E., and Schmidt, C.G.: Regression des Chorionepithelioms: Zytosta-tikawirkung und/oder Immunreaktion? Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 95:1810–1815, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Galton, M., Goldman, P.B., and Holt, S.F.: Karyotypic and morphologic characterization of a serially transplanted human choriocarcinoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 31:1019–1035, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gill, T.J., Wegmann, G., and Nisbet-Brown, E.: Immu-noregulation and Fetal Survival. Oxford University Press, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  62. Goldfarb, S., Richart, R.M., and Okagaki, T.: A cyto-photometric study of nuclear DNA content of cyto-and syncytiotrophoblast in trophoblastic disease. Cancer 27:83–92, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Goldstein, D.P.: The chemotherapy of gestational trophoblastic disease. Principles of clinical management. J.A.M.A. 220:209–213, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goldstein, D.P., and Berkowitz, R.S., eds.: Trophoblastic Neoplasms. Clinical Principles of Diagnosis and Management. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1982.Google Scholar
  65. Greene, J.B., and McCue, S.A.: Choriocarcinoma with cerebral metastases coexistent with a first pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131:253–254, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Grimmer, D., Landas, S., and Kemp, J.D.: IgM antitrophoblast antibodies in a patient with a pregnancy-associated lupuslike disorder, vasculitis, and recurrent intrauterine fetal demise. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 112:191–193, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hackett, E., and Beech, M.: Immunologic treatment of a case of choriocarcinoma. Br. Med. J. 2:1123–1126, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hammond, C.B., Weed, J.C., Barnard, D.E., and Tyrey, L.: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. CA 31:322–332, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Heller, E.L., and Householder, J.M.: Clinicopathologic conference. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 22:883–889, 1952.Google Scholar
  70. Hertig, A.T., and Mansell, H.: Tumors of the female sex organs. Part I. Hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. In, Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Sect. IX, Fasc. 33. Armed Forces of Pathology, Washington, D.C., 1956.Google Scholar
  71. Hertz, R.: Quantitative monitoring of chemotherapy of endocrine tumors by hormone assay. J.A.M.A. 222: 1163, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hertz, R.: Choriocarcinoma and Related Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors in Women. Raven Press, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  73. Ho, H.-N., Gill, T.J., Klionsky, B., Ouyang, P-C., Hsieh, C.-Y., and Kunschner, A.: Differences between white and Chinese populations in human leukocyte antigen sharing and gestational trophoblastic tumors. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161:942–948, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Homesley, H.D., Blessing, J.A., Rettenmaier, M., Capizzi, R.L., Major, F.J., and Twiggs, L.B.: Weekly intramuscular methotrexate for nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic disease. Obstet. Gynecol. 72: 413–418, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hopkins, M., Nunez, C., Murphy, J.R., and Wentz, W.B.: Malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor. Obstet. Gynecol. 66:95S–100S, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Huber, H.: Das Chorionepitheliom. Arch. Gynäkol. 207:187–201, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hutchison, J.R., Peterson, E.P., and Zimmermann, E.A.: Coexisting metastatic choriocarcinoma and normal pregnancy: therapy during gestation with maternal remission and fetal survival. Obstet. Gynecol. 31:331–336, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Iliya, F.A., Williamson, S., and Azar, H.A.: Choriocarcinoma in the Near East. Consanguinity as a possible etiologic factor. Cancer 20:144–149, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Iliya, F.A., Khuri, F.P., and Khuri, S.F: Multisystem blood group study in trophoblastic disease. Lebanese Med. J. 22:707–711, 1969.Google Scholar
  80. Inferrera, C., Pulle, C., Rigano, A., and Palmara, D.: Aspetti ultrastrutturali e citochimici del coriocarci-noma uterino. Arch. Ostetr. Ginecol. 72:707–744, 1967.Google Scholar
  81. Ivaskova, E., Jakoubkova, J., Zavadil, M., Schneid, V., Koldovsky, P., and Ivanyi, P.: HL-A antigens and choriocarcinoma. Transplant. Proc. 1:80–81, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Izhar, M., Siebert, P.D., Oshima, R.G., DeWolf, W.C., and Fukuda, M.N.: Trophoblastic differentiation of human teratocarcinoma cell line HT-H1. Dev. Biol. 116:510–518, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jarrett, D.D., and Pratt-Thomas, H.R.: Metastatic choriocarcinoma appearing as a unilateral renal mass. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 108:356–357, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jauniaux, E., Zucker, M., Meuris, S., Verherst, A., Wilkin, P., and Hustin, J.: Chorangiocarcinoma: an unusual tumour of the placenta; the missing link? Placenta 9:607–613, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kato, M., Tanaka, K., and Takeuchi, S.: The nature of trophoblastic disease initiated by transplantation into immunosuppressed animals. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 142:497–505, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kirk, J. A.: Persistence of abnormal trophoblast. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 92:667–669, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Knoth, M., Hesseldahl, H., and Larsen, J.F.: Ultrastructure of human choriocarcinoma. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. 48:100–118, 1969a.Google Scholar
  88. Knoth, M., Pattillo, R.A., Garancis, J.C., Gey, G.O., Ruckert, A.C.F., and Mattingly, R.F.: Ultrastructure and hormone synthesis of choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Pathol. 54:479–488, 1969b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kohorn, E.I.: Theca lutein ovarian cyst may be pathognomonic for trophoblastic neoplasia. Obstet. Gynecol. 62:80S–81S, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kolstad, P., and Hognestad, J.: Trophoblastic tumours in Norway. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 44:80–88, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kruseman, A.C.N., van Lent, M., Blom, A.H. and Lauw, G.P.: Choriocarcinoma in mother and child, identified by immunoenzyme histochemistry. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 67:279–283, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kurman, R.J., Scully, R.E., and Norris, N.J.: Trophoblastic pseudotumor of the uterus: an exaggerated form of “syncytial endometritis” simulating a malignant tumor. Cancer 38:1214–1226, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kurman, R.J., Main, C.S., and Chen, H.-C.: Intermediate trophoblast: a distinctive form of trophoblast with specific morphological, biochemical and functional features. Placenta 5:349–370, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kushima, K., Noda, K., and Makita, M.: Experimental production of chorionic tumor in rabbits. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 91:209–214, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Larsen, J.F., Ehrman, R.L., and Bierring, F.: Electron microscopy of human choriocarcinoma transplanted into hamster liver. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 99:1109–1124, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lathrop, J.C., Wachtel, T.J., and Meissner, G.F.: Uterine choriocarcinoma fourteen years following bilateral tubal ligation. Obstet. Gynecol. 51:477–482, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lawler, S.D., Klouda, P.T., and Bagshawe, K.D.: HL-A system in trophoblastic neoplasia. Lancet 2:834–837, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lewis, J., Gore, H., Hertig, A.T., and Goss, D.A.: Treatment of trophoblastic disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:710–722, 1966.Google Scholar
  99. Lewis, J.L., Brown, W.E., Hertz, R., Davis, R.C., and Johnson, R.H.: Heterotransplantation of human choriocarcinoma in monkeys. Cancer Res. 28:2032–2038, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Li, M.C.: Chemotherapeutic and immunological aspects of choriocarcinoma. J.A.M.A. 222:1163–1164, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Li, M.C., Hertz, R., and Spencer, D.B. Effect of methotrexate therapy upon choriocarcinoma and chorioadenoma. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 93:361–366, 1956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lindsey, J.R., Wharton, L.R., Woodruff, J.D., and Baker, H.J.: Intrauterine choriocarcinoma in a rhesus monkey. Pathol. Vet. 6378–384, 1969.Google Scholar
  103. Lurain, J.R., Sand, P.K., and Brewer, J.I.: Choriocarcinoma associated with ectopic pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 68:286–287, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Madarame, H., Sakurai, H., and Konno, S.: Choriocarcinoma in a DDD mouse: a case report with immuno-histochemical and ultrastructural studies. Lab. Anim. Sci. 39:255–258, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Madden, S.: Chorionepithelioma of the fallopian tube. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 57:68–70, 1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Makino, S., Sasaki, M.S., and Fukushima, T.: Preliminary notes on the chromosomes of human chorionic lesions. Proc. Jpn Acad. 39:54–58, 1963.Google Scholar
  107. Manivel, J.C., Niehans, G., Wick, M.R., and Dehner, L.P.: Intermediate trophoblast in germ cell neoplasms. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 11:693–701, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Marchand, F.J.: Über die sogenannten “decidualen” Geschwülste im Anschluss an normale Geburt, Abort, Blasenmole und Extrauterinschwangerschaft. Monats-schr. Geburtshilfe Gynäkol. 1:419–438; 513–560, 1895.Google Scholar
  109. Marin-Padilla, M., and Benirschke, K.: Thalidomide induced alterations in the blastocyst and placenta of the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus mexicanus, including a choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Pathol. 43:999–1016, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Marquez Monter, H., and Velasco, A.F.: Patologia de los tumores trofoblasticos. Bol. Asoc. Mex. Patol. 5:11–16, 1967.Google Scholar
  111. Martin, F.I.R., and Carden, A.B.G.: Gynaecomastia in chorion-epithelioma—Oestrogen levels and probable pathogenesis. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 43:203–212, 1963.Google Scholar
  112. Martin, B.R., Orr, J.W., and Austin, J.M.: Cervical choriocarcinoma associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device: a case report. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 147:343–344, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Matalon, M., Paz, B., Modan, M., and Modan, B.: Malignant trophoblastic disorders: epidemiologic aspects and relationship to hydatidiform mole. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 112:101–106, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Mathé, G., Dausset, J., Hervet, E., Amiel, J.L., Colom-bani, J., and Brule, G.: Immunological studies in patients with placental choriocarcinoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 33:193–208, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mercer, R.D., Lammert, A.C., Anderson, R., and Hazard, J.B.: Choriocarcinoma in mother and infant. J.A.M.A. 166:482–483, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Midgley, A.R., and Jaffe, R.B.: Regulation of human gonadotropins: II. Disappearance of human chorionic gonadotropin following delivery. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 28:1712–1718, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Miller, J.M., Surwit, E.A., and Hammond, C.B.: Choriocarcinoma following term pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 53:207–212, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Mills, W.: Chorion-carcinoma in the midlands. Clin. Radiol. 15:260–262, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Miyamoto, M.: Experimental induction of choriocarcinoma in rats. Gann 62:55–56, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Mogensen, B., and Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.: Histocompatibility antigens on the HL-A locus in generalised gestational choriocarcinoma: a family study. Lancet 1:721–724, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mogensen, B., and Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.: Current data on HL-A and ABO typing in gestational choriocarcinoma and invasive mole. Transplant. Proc. 3:1267–1269, 1971.Google Scholar
  122. Mogensen, B., and Olsen, S.: Gestational choriocarcinoma in Denmark 1940–1969: a reappraisal based on modern histologic criteria. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 51:63–69, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Nagelberg, S.B., and Rosen, S.W.: Clinical and laboratory investigation of a virilized woman with placental-site trophoblastic tumor. Obstet. Gynecol. 65:527–534, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Nanke, E.: Über primär heterotopes (ektopisches) Chorionepitheliom und Chorionepitheliosis. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilk. 19:523–531, 1959.Google Scholar
  125. Nepom, G.T.: The effects of variations in human immune-response genes. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:751–752, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Nickels, J., Risberg, B., and Melander, S.: Trophoblastic pseudotumour of the uterus. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. [A] 86:14–16, 1978.Google Scholar
  127. Nisbet, A.D., Brehmer, R.D., Hörne, C.H.W., Brooker, D., Twiggs, L.B., and Okagaki, T.: Placental protein 5 in gestational trophoblastic disease: localization and circulating levels. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 144:396–401, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Ober, W.B.: Gestational choriocarcinoma: immunological aspects, diagnosis and treatment. Excerpta Medica Int. Congr. Ser. 203:304–315, 1969.Google Scholar
  129. Ober, W.B., and Fass, R.O.: The early history of choriocarcinoma. J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 16:49–73, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ober, W.B., and Maier, R.C.: Gestational choriocarcinoma of the fallopian tube. Diagn. Gynecol. Obstet. 3:213–231, 1981.Google Scholar
  131. Ober, W.B., Edgcomb, J.H., and Price, E.B.: The pathology of choriocarcinoma. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 172:299–426, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Oettle, A.G.: Malignant neoplasms of the uterus in the white, “coloured,” Indian and Bantu races of the Union of South Africa. Acta Uni. Int. Contra Cane. 17:915–933, 1961.Google Scholar
  133. Olive, D.L., Lurain, J.R., and Brewer, J.I.: Choriocarcinoma associated with term gestation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148:711–716, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Ory, S.J., Villanueva, A.L., Sand, P.K., and Tamura, R.K.: Conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154: 1299–1306, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Parazzini, F., La Vecchia, C., Mangili, G., Caminiti, C., Negri, E., Cecchetti, G., and Fasoli, M.: Dietary factors and risk of trophoblastic disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158:93–100, 1988a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Parazzini, F., Mangili, G., Belloni, C., La Vecchia, C., Liati, P., and Marabini, R.: The problem of identification of prognostic factors for persistent trophoblastic disease. Gynecol. Oncol. 30:57–62, 1988b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Park, W.W.: The occurrence of sex chromatin in chori-onepitheliomas and hydatidiform moles. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 74:197–206, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Park, W.W.: Choriocarcinoma: A Study of Its Pathology. Davis, Philadelphia, 1971.Google Scholar
  139. Patterson, W.B.: Normal pregnancy after recovery from metastatic choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 72:183–187, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Pierce, G.B., and Midgley, A.R.: The origin and function of human syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells. Am. J. Pathol. 43:153–173, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Pushchak, M.J., and Farhi, D.C.: Primary choriocarcinoma of the lung. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 111:477–479, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rahman, M.S., Al-Suleiman, S.A., Rahman, J., and Al-Sibai, M.H.: Advanced abdominal pregnancy-Observations in 10 cases Obstet. Gynecol. 59:366–372, 1982.Google Scholar
  143. Rauter, B.: Zum Problem des Chorionepithelioms. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 80:634–636, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Reddy, D.B., and Rao, N.: Trophoblastic tumors: II. Choriocarcinoma: a review of 50 cases. Indian J. Med. 23:532–537, 1969.Google Scholar
  145. Riggs, J.A., Wainer, A.S., Hahn, G.A., and Farell, D.M.: Extrauterine tubal choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 88:637–641, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Robinson, E., Shulman, J., Ben-Hur, N., Zuckerman, H., and Neuman, Z.: Immunological studies and behaviour of husband and foreign homografts in patients with chorionepithelioma. Lancet 1:300–302, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Rolon, P.A., and Lopez, B.H.de: Malignant trophoblastic disease in Paraguay. J. Reprod. Med. 23:94–96, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Rosenheim, N.B., Wijnen, H., and Woodruff, J.D.: Clinical importance of the diagnosis of trophoblastic pseudotumors. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 136:635–638, 1980.Google Scholar
  149. Rudolph, R.H., and Thomas, E.D.: HL-A antigens and choriocarcinoma. Lancet 2:408–409, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Santamaria, M., Benirschke, K., Carpenter, P.M., Baldwin, V.J., and Pritchard, J.A.: Transplacental hemorrhage associated with placental neoplasms. Pediatr. Pathol. 7:601–615, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Schopper, W., and Pliess, G.: Über Chorionepitheliosis: ein Beitrag zur Genese, Diagnostik und Bedeutung ektopischer chorionepithelialer Wucherungen. Vir-chows Arch. 317:347–384, 1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Scott, J.S.: Choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 83:185–193, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Scott, J.S.: Histocompatibility antigens in choriocarcinoma. Lancet 1:865–866, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Scully, R.E., and Young, R.H.: Trophoblastic pseudotumor: a reappraisal. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 5:75–76, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Searle, F., Leake, B.A., Bagshawe, K.D., and Dent, J.: Serum-SP! pregnancy-specific-ß-glycoprotein in choriocarcinoma and other neoplastic disease. Lancet 1:579–581, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Shintani, S., Glass, L.E., and Page, E.W.: Studies of induced malignant tumors of placental and uterine origin in the rat. I. Survival of placental tissue following fetectomy. II. Induced tumors and their pathogenesis with special reference to choriocarcinoma. III. Identification of experimentally induced choriocarcinoma by detection of placental hormone. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 95:542–549; 550–558; 559–563, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Soma, H., Kiyokawa, T., Akaeda, T., Miyashita, T., and Matayoshi, K.: The chromosomes of a human choriocarcinoma cell line in vitro with special reference to the presence of Y chromosome. Acta Obstet. Gynaecol. Jpn. 20:239–242, 1973.Google Scholar
  158. Soma, H., Takayama, M., Tokoro, K., Kikuchi, T., Kikuchi, K., and Saegusa, H.: Radioimmunoassay of hCG as an early diagnosis of cerebral metastases in choriocarcinoma patients. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 59:445–448, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Soper, J.T., Mutch, D.G., Chin, N., Clarke-Pearson, D.L., and Hammond, C.B.: Renal metastases of gestational trophoblastic disease: a report of eight cases. Obstet. Gynecol. 72:796–798, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Spiegel, J. A.: Endoarterial choriocarcinoma of the lung: report of a case and review of the literature. Obstet. Gynecol. 24:740–748, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Srivannaboon, S.: Antigenicity of human choriocarcinoma. Int. J. Fertil. 16:36–41, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. St Clair, J.T., Wheeler, D.A., and Fish, S.A.: Methotrexate in abdominal pregnancy J.A.M.A. 208:529–531, 1969.Google Scholar
  163. Stein-Werblowsky, T.: Induction of a chorion-epitheli-omatous tumour in the rat. Nature 186:980, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sullivan, L.G.: Primary choriocarcinoma of the lung in aman. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 113:82–83, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Surwit, E.A., Alberts, D.S., Christian, C.D., and Graham, V.E.: Poor-prognosis gestational trophoblastic disease: an update. Obstet. Gynecol. 64:21–26, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Szulman, A.E., and Buchsbaum, H.J., eds.: Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  167. Tanimura, A., Natsuyama, H., Kawano, M., Tanimura, Y., Tanaka, T., and Kitazono, M.: Primary choriocarcinoma of the lung. Hum. Pathol. 16:1281–1284, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Teacher, J.H.: On chorionepithelioma and the occurrence of chorionepitheliomatous and hydatidiform mole-like structures in teratomata: a pathological and clinical study. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 4:1–64, 145–199, 1903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Thiersch, J.B.: Therapeutic abortions with a folic acid antagonist, 4-aminopteroylglutamic acid (4-amino P.G. A.) administered by the oral route. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 63:1298–1304, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Tomoda, Y., Fuma, M., Saiki, N., Ishizuka, N., and Akaza, T.: Immunologic studies in patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 126: 661–667, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Tomoda, Y., Kaseki, S., Goto, S., Nishi, H., Hara, T., and Naruki, M.: Rh-D factor in trophoblastic tumors: a possible cause of the high incidence in Asia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 139:742–743, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Tow, S.H.: Choriocarcinoma: a review of current concepts based on the Singapore experience. Singapore Med. J. 6:117–126, 1965.Google Scholar
  173. Turner, H.B., Douglas, W.M., and Gladding, T.C.: Choriocarcinoma of the ovary. Obstet. Gynecol. 24: 918–920, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Van Thiel, D.H., Ross, G.T., and Lipsett, M.B.: Pregnancies after chemotherapy of trophoblastic neoplasms. Science 169:1326–1327, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vaughn, T.C., Surwit, E.A., and Hammond, C.B.: Late recurrences of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138:73–76, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Waiden, P.A.M., and Bagshawe, K.D.: Reproductive performance of women successfully treated for gestational trophoblastic tumors. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 125:1108–1114, 1976.Google Scholar
  177. Weed, J.C., and Hammond, C.B.: Cerebral metastatic choriocarcinoma: intensive therapy and prognosis. Obstet. Gynecol. 55:89–94, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Wegmann, T.G., and Gill, T.J.: Immunology of Reproduction. Oxford University Press, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  179. Wehmann, R.E., Ayala, A.R., Birken, S., Canfield, R.E., and Nisula, B.C.: Improved monitoring of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia using a highly sensitive assay for urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 140:753–757, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Wei, P.Y., and Cuyang, P.C.: Trophoblastic disease in Taiwan: a review of 157 cases in a 10 year period. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 85:844–849, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Wells, M., and Bulmer, J.N.: The human placental bed: histology, immunohistochemistry and pathology. His-topathology 13:483–498, 1988.Google Scholar
  182. Wenger, M.E., Dines, D.E., Ahmann, D.L., and Good, C.A.: Primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma. Mayo Clin. Proc. 43:570–575, 1968.Google Scholar
  183. Witzleben, C.L., and Bruninga, G.: Infantile choriocarcinoma: a characteristic syndrome. J. Pediatr. 73: 374–378, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wynn, R.M., and Davies, J.: Ultrastructure of transplanted choriocarcinoma and its endocrine implications. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 88:618–633, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Yamashita, K., Nakamura, T., and Shimizu, T.: Absence of major histocompatibility complex antigens in choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150:896–897, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Yazaki, K., Yazaki, C., Wakabayashi, K., and Igarashi, M.: Isoelectric heterogeneity of human chorionic gonadotropin: Presence of choriocarcinoma specific components. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138:189–194, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Yen, S., and MacMahon, B.: Epidemiologic features of trophoblastic disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 101: 126–132, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Yuen, B.H., Cannon, W., Benedet, J.L., and Boyes, D.A.: Plasma ß-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin assay in molar pregnancy and choriocarcinoma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 127:711–712, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Pathology and Reproductive MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.University Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen Fakultät, Rheinisch-Westfälische TechnischeHochschule AachenAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations