Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Anticoagulant

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurs primarily in young women, and it often complicates pregnancy. It has been speculated that this autoimmune disorder is so much more common in women than in men (10:1) because of their sensitization to nuclear antigens to which they are exposed during menstruation (Dameshek, 1958; Grimes et al., 1985; Hulka, 1985). Estrogens exacerbate the disease because they have a “potent influence on the immune system and therefore an effect on disease processes” (Hays-lett & Reece, 1985). Hayslett and Reece reviewed reports of the influence of pregnancy on the course of SLE and found that in 25 to 50% of patients with SLE the disease exacerbates or relapses with pregnancy. In addition, their review indicated that fetal survival is reduced because of an increased number of abortions, maternal renal insufficiency, and placental pregnancy complications. They suggested treatment regimens for women with SLE and pregnancy.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Fetal Death Lupus Anticoagulant Anticardiolipin Antibody Congenital Heart Block 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Pathology and Reproductive MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.University Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen Fakultät, Rheinisch-Westfälische TechnischeHochschule AachenAachenGermany

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