• Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann


Erythroblastosis fetalis, or hemolytic disease of the newborn, is a condition caused by specific antibodies of the mother directed against red blood cell antigens of the fetus. These are largely Rh(D) antigens, but rare cases of sensitization against other antigens (e.g., Kell) and ABO incompatibility with fetal hemolytic disease have been described. Leventhal and Wolf (1956) have presented Kell isoimmunization as a cause of fatal erythroblastosis (EF), which was also found in the well illustrated case of Ivemark et al. (1959). It does not differ pathologically from anti-D-induced erythroblastosis. Relatively few cases of typical, severe EF have been described as being due to ABO incompatibility. They were summarized by Freda and Carter (1962). A fatal case was delineated by Miller and Pétrie (1963), but usually the hemolytic disease of ABO incompatibility is mild.


Hydatidiform Mole Chorionic Villus Sampling Hemolytic Disease Fetal Hydrops Placental Pathology 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Pathology and Reproductive MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.University Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen Fakultät, Rheinisch-Westfälische TechnischeHochschule AachenAachenGermany

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