Placental Types

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann


Throughout pregnancy viviparous vertebrates develop a system of membranes that surround the fetus. The apposition or fusion of these fetal membranes with the uterine mucosa, for purposes of maternofetal physiological exchange, initiates the formation of the placenta. To put it differently, the fetus is surrounded by the chorionic sac, to which it is connected by the umbilical cord (Figure 1). The chorionic sac lies in the uterine cavity and has contact with the endometrium over almost its entire surface. The maternofetal contact zone, provided by chorion and endometrium, represents the placenta.


Human Placenta Maternal Blood Tissue Layer Fetal Membrane Placental Barrier 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Pathology and Reproductive MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.University Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen Fakultät, Rheinisch-Westfälische TechnischeHochschule AachenAachenGermany

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