Semiology of the Tear Film

  • M. Rolando
Part of the FIDIA Research Series book series (FIDIA, volume 11)


Tear film changes are one of the mast common problem in general Ophthalmic practice as they can be primary, but more often are the consequence of almost any affection of the ocular surface.


Ocular Surface Lacrimal Gland Rose Bengal Lipid Layer Paper Strip 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abelson MB, Holly FJ (1977) A tentative mechanism for inferior punctate keratopathy. Am.J.Ophthalmol. 83: 866–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abelson MB, Udell IJ, Weston JH (1981) Normal human tear pH by direct measurement. Arch.Ophthalmol. 99: 301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams AD (1979) The morphology of human conjunctival mucus. Arch.Ophthalmoi. 97: 730–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bijsterveld OP(van) (1969) Diagnostic tests in the sicca syndrome. Arch.Ophthalmol. 82: 10–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonavida B, Sapse AT (1968) Human tear lysozyme.II- Quantitative determination with standard Schirmer strips. Am.J.Ophthalmol. 66: 70–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gachon AM, Richard J, Dastugue B (1982/83) Human tears: normal protein pattern and individual determinations in adults. Curr.Eye Res. 2: 301–308Google Scholar
  7. Gilbard JP, Farris RL, Santamaria J (1978) Osmolarity of tear microvolumes in keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Arch.Ophthalmol. 96: 677–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gilbard JP, Carter JB, Sang DN, Refojo MF, Hanninen LA, Kenyon KR (1984) Morphologic effect of hyperosmolarity on rabbit corneal epithelium. Ophthalmology 91: 1205–1212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hamano H, Hori M, Kawabe H et al. (1980) Clinical applications of bio differential interference microscope. Contact Intraocular Lens Med.J. 6: 229–235Google Scholar
  10. Holly FJ, Lamberts DW, Esquivel ED (1982/83) Kinetics of capillary tear flow in the Schirmer strip. Curr.Eye Res. 2: 57–70Google Scholar
  11. Janssen PT, Bijsterveld OP (van) (1983) A simple test for lacrimal gland functions a tear lactoferrin assay by radial immunodiffusion. Graefes Arch.Clin.Exp.Ophthalmol. 220: 171–174Google Scholar
  12. Jordan A, Baum J (1980) Basic tear flow: does it exist? Ophthalmology 87: 920–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kurihashi K (1978) Tränensekretionsmessung mit der Baumwollfadenmethode. Klin. Mbl.Augenheilk. 172: 876–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Liotet S, Shawki D (1984) Intérét diagnostic de l’électrophorèse des proteines lacrymales. Bull.Soc.Ophtalmol.France 84: 545–549Google Scholar
  15. Mackie JA, Seal DV (1981) The questionable dry eye. Br.J.Ophthalmol. 65: 2–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McGill J (1985) The tear film in health and disease. In: Easty DL, Smolin G(eds): External eye disease. Butterworths, London; 106–132Google Scholar
  17. Mengher LS, Bron AJ, Tonge SR, Gilbert DJ (1985) A non-invasive instrument for clinical assessment of the pre-corneal tear film stability. Curr.Eye Res.4:l-7Google Scholar
  18. Norn MS (1965) Tear secretion in normal eyes. Estimated by a new method: the lacrimal streak dilution test. Acta Ophthalmol. 43: 567–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Norn MS (1968) Bromothymol blue. Vital staining of conjunctiva and cornea. Acta Ophthalmol. 46: 231–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Norn MS (1979) Semiquantitative interference study of fatty layer of precorneal film. Acta Ophthalmol. 57: 766–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Norn MS (1980) Natural fat in external eye. Acta Ophthalmol. 58: 331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rolando M (1984) Tear mucus ferning test in normal and keratoconjunctivitis sicca eyes. Chibret Int.J.Ophthalmol. 2 (4): 32–41Google Scholar
  23. Rolando M, Refojo MF (1983) Tear evaporimeter for measuring water evaporation rate from the tear film under controlled conditions in human. Exp.Eye Res. 36: 2533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rolando M, Refojo MF, Kenyon KR (1983) Increased tear evaporation in eyes with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Arch.Ophthalmol. 101: 557–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rolando M, Baldi F, Zingirian M (1986) The effect of hyperosmolari.ty on tear mucus ferning. Fortschr.Ophthalmol. 83: 644–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rolando M, Terragna FM, Burlando S, Zingirian M (1986) La citologia ad impressione della superficie oculare in soggetti con acne rosacea. Atti 65° Congr. Soc. Oftalmol. Italiana, Siena, 1985. L.Cappelli, Bologna; pp. 161–165Google Scholar
  27. Royer J, Tabatabay C, Deschamps F (1985) Empreinte conjonctivale dans le syndrome de kératoconjonctivite sèche. Klin.Mbl.Augenheilk. 186: 513–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Scherz W, Doane MG, Dohlman CH (1974) Tear volume in normal eyes and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Graefes Arch.Clin.Exp.Ophthalmol. 192: 141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sjögren H (1933) Zur Kenntnis des Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. (Keratitis filiformis bei Hypofunktion der Trbnendrüsed. Acta Ophthalmol.11: suppl. 2Google Scholar
  30. Tseng SCG (1985) Staging of conjunctival squamous metaplasia by impression cytology. Ophthalmology 92: 728–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Vanley GT, Leopold IH, Gregg TH (1977) Interpretation of tear film breakup. Arch. Ophthalmol. 95: 445–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Rolando
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of GenovaItaly

Personalised recommendations