Pharyngoesophageal Interrelationships

  • Bronwyn Jones
  • Martin W. Donner


How do the esophagus and the pharynx interrelate (1)? What (if any) are the feedback mechanisms that control peristalsis? Are there any reflexes that cause the cricopharyngeal muscle to hypertrophy, or cause raised upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure or tension? Does esophagopharyngeal regurgitation of gastric acid harm the pharynx and can this result in dysphagia? This chapter hopes to answer these questions, or at least provide hypotheses on the subject of pharyngoesophageal interrelationships.


Heller Myotomy Piriform Sinus Cricopharyngeal Muscle Pharyngeal Dysphagia Antireflux Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Jones B, Ravich WJ, Donner MW, Kramer SS, Hendrix TR: Pharyngoesophageal interrelationships: Observations and working concepts. Gastrointest Radio! 1985;10:225–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Edwards DAW: History and symptoms of esophageal disease of the esophagus, in Vantrappen G, Hellemans J (eds): Diseases of the Esophagus. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1974.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murakami Y, Fukuda H, Kirchner JA: The cricopharyngeus muscle. Acta Otolaryngol [Suppl] (Stockh) 1972;311:1–19.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Creamer B, Schlegel J: Motor responses of the esophagus to distension. J Appl Physiol 1957;10:498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Enzmann DR, Hare11 GS, Zboralske FF: Upper esophageal responses to intraluminal distention in man. Gastroenterology 1977;72:1292–1298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gerhardt DC, Shuck BS, Bordeaux RA, Winship DH: Human upper esophageal sphincter: Response to volume, osmotic and acid stimuli. Gastroenterology 1978;75:268–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rosenberg SJ, Harris LD: A single physiologic mechanism for changing strength of both esophageal sphincters (abstr). Gastroenterology 1971;60:798.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hunt PS, Connell AM, Smiley TBN: The cricopharyngeal sphincter in gastric reflux. Gut 1970;11:303–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stanciu C, Bennett JR: Upper oesophageal sphincter yield pressure in normal subjects and in patients with gastroesophageal reflux. Thorax 1974;29:459–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vakil NB, Kahrilas PJ, Dodds WJ, Vanagunas A: Absence of a upper esophageal sphincter response to acid reflux. Gastroenterology 1989;84:606–610.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Henderson RD: Reflux induced cricopharyngeal dysphagia—pathologic change in muscle biopsies (abstr). Presented at the Second International Conference on Diseases of the Esophagus, Chicago, May 19–21, 1983.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chernow B, Johnson LF, Janowitz WR, Castell DO: Pulmonary aspiration as a consequence of gastro-esophageal reflux: A diagnostic approach. Dig Dis Sci 1979;24:839–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kennedy JH: Silent gastro-esophageal reflux: An important but little known cause of pulmonary complications. Dis Chest 1962;42:42–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Overholt RH, Ashraf MM: Esophageal reflux as trigger in asthma. NY State J Med 1966;66:3030–3032.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mays EE: Intrinsic asthma in adults: Association with gastro-esophageal reflux. JAMA 1976; 236:2626–2628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Danus O, Casar C, Larrain A, Pope CE: Esophageal reflux—an unrecognized cause of recurrent obstructive bronchitis in children. J Pediatr 1976;89:220–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Christie DL, O’Grady LR, Mack DV: Incompetent lower esophageal sphincter and gastroesophageal reflux in recurrent acute pulmonary disease of infancy and childhood. J Pediatr 1978;93:23–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berquist WE, Rachelefsky GS, Kadden M, Siegel SC, Katz RM, Fonkalsrud EW, Ament ME: Gastro-esophageal reflux-associated recurrent pneumonia and chronic asthma in children. Pediatrics 1981;68:29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goldberg M, Noyek AM, Pritzker KP II: Laryngeal granuloma secondary to gastro-esophageal reflux. J Otolaryngol 1978;7:196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Larrain A, Lira E, Otero M, Pope CE II: Posterior laryngitis: A useful marker of esophageal reflux (abstr). Gastroenterology 1981;80:1204.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cherry J, Margulies Sl: Contact ulcers of the larynx. Laryngoscope 1968;78:1937–1940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Olson N: The problem of gastroesophageal reflux. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1986;19:119–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ward PH, Harrison DG: Reflux as an etiological factor of carcinoma of the laryngopharynx. Laryngoscope 1988;98:1195–1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Price JC, Jansen CJ, Johns ME: Esophageal reflux and secondary malignant neoplasia at laryngoesophagectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1990;116:163–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cherry J, Siegel Cl, Margulies 51, Donner MW: Pharyngeal localization of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Ann Otolaryngol 1970;79:912–915.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ravich WJ, Jones B, Kramer SS, Donner MW: Unexplained pharyngeal dysphagia—the role of esophageal disease (abstr). Gastroenterology 1983;84:1282.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jones B, Donner MW, Rubesin SE, Ravich WJ, Hendrix TR: Pharyngeal findings in 21 patients with achalasia of the esophagus. Dysphagia 1987;2:87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ravich WJ, Wilson RS, Jones B, Donner MW: Psychogenic dysphagia and globus: Reevaluation of 23 patients. Dysphagia 1989;4:35–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bronwyn Jones
  • Martin W. Donner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations