Anatomical and Physiological Overview

  • Emmett T. CunninghamJr.
  • Martin W. Donner
  • Bronwyn Jones
  • Stuart M. Point


The seemingly effortless act of swallowing, is, in reality, quite complex, involving approximately 50 paired muscles and virtually all levels of the central nervous system. For historical reasons, and as a matter of convenience, students of swallowing have somewhat arbitrarily divided this act into three anatomically and temporally distinct stages, or phases. The first, or oral phase, is primarily preparatory, and is that period during which foodstuffs are chewed and mixed with saliva, thus providing the proper texture and consistency for smooth transit through the pharynx and esophagus. The second, or pharyngeal phase, begins when the bolus passes the faucial pillars to enter the upper pharynx, and ends when it crosses the pharyngoesophageal sphincter. The third, or esophageal phase, covers that period during which the bolus is transported from the pharynx to the stomach via the esophagus.


Soft Palate Hyoid Bone Solitary Tract Posterior Pharyngeal Wall Oral Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmett T. CunninghamJr.
  • Martin W. Donner
  • Bronwyn Jones
  • Stuart M. Point

There are no affiliations available

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