Roles of Microglia in the Developing Avian Visual System

  • Julio Navascués
  • Miguel A. Cuadros
  • Ruth Calvente
  • José L. Marín-Teva


Microglia exhibit at least three morphological and functional states during their life cycle: ameboid, ramified and reactive. Ramified microglia, also called resting microglia, are differentiated cells present in the adult CNS that bear thin ramified processes that emerge from the cell body. Ramified microglial cells are considered inactive in the normal adult CNS. They activate in response to CNS insults to become reactive microglia that retract their processes and upregulate the expression of different molecules (reviewed in Streit et al. (1999); Stoll and Jander (1999)).


Optic Nerve Microglial Cell Optic Tectum Radial Migration Tangential Migration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alliot FI, Godin I, Pessac B (1999). Microglia derive from progenitors, originating from the yolk sac, and which proliferate in the brain. Dey Brain Res 117:145–152.Google Scholar
  2. Ashwell K (1989). Development of microglia in the albino rabbit retina. J Comp Neurol 287:286–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashwell KWS, Holländer H, Streit W, Stone J (1989). The appearance and distribution of microglia in the developing retina of the rat. Vis Neurosci 2:437–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashwell KWS, Bobryshev YV (1996). The developmental role of microglia. In: Topical Issues in Microglial Research (Ling EA, Tan CK, Tan CBC, eds.), pp 65–82. Singapore: Singapore Neuroscience Association.Google Scholar
  5. Bass WT, Singer GA, Liuzzi FJ (1998). Transient lectin binding by white matter tract border zone microglia in the foetal rabbit brain. Histochem J 30:657–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Battisti WP, Wang J, Bozek K, Murray M (1995). Macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes are rapidly activated after crush injury of the goldfish optic nerve: a light and electron microscopic analysis. J Comp Neurol 354:306–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boya J, Calvo JL, Carbonell AL, Borregon A (1991). A lectin histochemistry study on the development of rat microglial cells. J Anat 175:229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boycott BB, Hopkins JM (1981). Microglia in the retina of monkey and other mammals: its distinction from other types of glia and horizontal cells. Neuroscience 6:679–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chamak B, Morandi V, Mallat M (1994). Brain macrophages stimulate neurite growth and regeneration by secreting thrombospondin. J Neurosci Res 38:221–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chamak B, Dobbertin A, Mallat M (1995). Immunohistochemical detection of thrombospondin in microglia in the developing rat brain. Neuroscience 69:177–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cross AK, Woodroofe MN (1999). Chemokines induce migration and changes in actin polymerization in adult rat brain microglia and a human fetal microglial cell line in vitro. J Neurosci Res 55:17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cuadros MA, García-Martín M, Martin C, Ríos A (1991). Haemopoietic phagocytes in the early differentiating avian retina. J Anat 177:145–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cuadros MA, Martin C, Coltey P, Almendros A, Navascués J (1993). First appearance, distribution, and origin of macrophages in the early development of the avian central nervous system. J Comp Neurol 330:113–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cuadros MA, Moujahid A, Quesada A, Navascués J (1994). Development of microglia in the quail optic tectum. J Comp Neurol 348:207–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cuadros MA, Rodríguez-Ruiz J, Calvente R, Almendros A, Marín-Teva JL, Navascués J (1997). Microglia development in the quail cerebellum. J Comp Neurol 389:390–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cuadros MA, Navascués J (1998). The origin and differentiation of microglial cells during development. Prog Neurobiol 56:173–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cuadros MA, Martín D, Pérez-Mendoza D, Navascués J, Clarke PGH (2000). Response of macrophage/microglial cells to experimental neuronal degeneration in the avian isthmooptic nucleus during development. J Comp Neurol 423:659–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Diaz-Araya CM, Provis JM, Penfold PL (1995a). Ontogeny and cellular expression of MHC and leucocyte antigens in human retina. Glia 15:458–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Diaz-Araya CM, Provis JM, Penfold PL, Billson FA (1995b). Development of microglial topography in human retina. J Comp Neurol 363:53–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Diemel LT, Copelman CA, Cuzner ML (1998). Macrophages in CNS remyelination: friend or foe? Neurochem Res 23:341–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Diez-Roux G, Lang RA (1997). Macrophages induce apoptosis in normal cells in vivo. Development 124:3633–3638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dowding AJ, Maggs A, Scholes J (1991). Diversity amongst the microglia in growing and regenerating fish CNS: immunohistochemical characterization using FL.1, an antimacrophage monoclonal antibody. Glia 4:345–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Egensperger R, Maslim J, Bisti S, Holländer H, Stone J (1996). Fate of DNA from retinal cells dying during development: uptake by microglia and macroglia (Müller cells). Dev Brain Res 97:1–8.Google Scholar
  24. Elkabes S, DiCicco-Bloom EM, Black IB (1996). Brain microglia/macrophages express neurotrophins that selectively regulate microglial proliferation and function. J Neurosci 16:2508–2521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellison JA, De Vellis J (1995). Amoeboid microglia expressing GD3 ganglioside are concentrated in regions of oligodendrogenesis during development of the rat corpus callosum. Glia 14:123–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferrer I, Bernet E, Soriano E, Del Rio T, Fonseca M (1990). Naturally occurring cell death in the cerebral cortex of the rat and removal of dead cells by transitory phagocytes. Neuroscience 39:451–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Frade JM, Rodríguez-Tébar A, Barde YA (1996). Induction of cell death by endogenous growth factor through its p75 receptor. Nature 383:166–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Frade JM, Barde YA (1998). Microglia-derived nerve growth factor causes cell death in the developing retina. Neuron 20:35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frade JM, Barde YA (1999). Genetic evidence for cell death mediated by nerve growth factor and the neurotrophin receptor p75 in the developing mouse retina and spinal cord. Development 126:683–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frade JM, Bovolenta P, Rodríguez-Tébar A (1999). Neurotrophins and other growth factors in the generation of retinal neurons. Microsc Res Tech 45:243–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia-Valenzuela E, Sharma SC (1999). Laminar restriction of retinal macrophagic response to optic nerve axotomy in the rat. J Neurobiol 40:55–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gilad GM, Gilad VH (1995). Chemotaxis and accumulation of nerve growth factor by microglia and macrophages. J Neurosci Res 41:594–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Goodbrand IA, Gaze R (1991). Microglia in tadpoles of Xenopus laevis: normal distribution and the response to optic nerve injury. Anat Embryol 184:71–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Graeber MB, Lopez-Redondo F, Ikoma E, Ishikawa M, Imai Y, Nakajima K, Kreutzberg GW, Kohsaka S (1998). The microglia/macrophage response in the neonatal rat facial nucleus following axotomy. Brain Res 813:241–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Halfter W, Fua CS (1987). Immunohistochemical localization of laminin, neural cell adhesion molecule, collagen type IV and T-61 antigen in the embryonic retina of the Japanese quail by in vivo injection of antibodies. Cell Tiss Res 249:487–496.Google Scholar
  36. Halfter W, Reckhaus W, Kröger S (1987). Nondirected axonal growth on basal lamina from avian embryonic neural retina. J Neurosci 7:3712–3722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Harada T, Harada C, Nakayama N, Okuyama S, Yoshida K, Kohsaka S, Matsuda H, Wada K (2000). Modification of glial-neuronal cell interactions prevents photoreceptor apoptosis during light-induced retinal degeneration. Neuron 26:533–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hirschberg DL, Schwartz M (1995). Macrophage recruitment to acutely injured central nervous system is inhibited by a resident factor: a basis for an immune-brain barrier. J Neuroimmunol 61:89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hughes S, Yang HJ, Chan-Ling T (2000). Vascularization of the human fetal retina: roles of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:1217–1228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hughes WF, LaVelle A (1975). The effects of early tectal lesions on development in the retinal ganglion cell layer of chick embryos. J Comp Neurol 163:265–283.Google Scholar
  41. Hughes WF, McLoon SC (1979). Ganglion cell death during normal retinal development in the chick: comparisons with cell death induced by early target field destruction. Exp Neurol 66:587–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hume DA, Perry VH, Gordon S (1983). Immunohistochemical localization of a macrophage specific antigen in developing mouse retina: phagocytosis of dying neurons and differentiation of microglial cells to form a regular array in the plexiform layers. J Cell Biol 97:253–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hurley SD, Streit WJ (1996). Microglia and the mononuclear phagocyte system. In: Topical Issues in Microglial Research (Ling EA, Tan CK, Tan CBC, eds.), pp 1–19. Singapore: Singapore Neuroscience Association.Google Scholar
  44. Imamoto K, Leblond CP (1978). Radioautographic investigation of gliogenesis in the corpus callosum of young rats. II. Origin of microglial cells. J Comp Neurol 180:134–164.Google Scholar
  45. Jimeno D, Velasco A, Lillo C, Lara JM, Aijón J (1999). Response of microglial cells after a cryolesion in the peripheral proliferative retina of tench. Brain Res 816:175–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaur C, Ling EA (1991). Study of the transformation of amoeboid microglial cells into microglia labelled with the isolectin Griffonia simplicifolia in postnatal rats. Acta Anat 142:118–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Knabe W, Süss M, Kuhn HJ (2000). The patterns of cell death and of macrophages in the developing forebrain of the tree shrew Tupaia belangeri. Anat Embryol 201:157–168.Google Scholar
  48. Knott RM, Robertson M, Muckersie E, Folefac VA, Fairhurst FE, Wileman SM, Forrester JV (1999). A model system for the study of human retinal angiogenesis: activation of monocytes and endothelial cells and the association with the expression of the monocarboxylate transporter type 1 (MCT-1). Diabetologia 42:870–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lawson LJ, Perry VH, Dri P, Gordon S (1990). Heterogeneity in the distribution and morphology of microglia in the normal adult mouse brain. Neuroscience 39:151–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lawson LJ, Frost L, Risbridger J, Fearn S, Perry VH (1994). Quantification of the mononuclear phagocyte response to Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve. J Neurocytol 23:729–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lawson LJ, Perry VH (1995). The unique characteristics of inflammatory responses in mouse brain are acquired during postnatal development. Eur J Neurosci 7:1584–1595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lazarov-Spiegler O, Solomon AS, Schwartz M (1998). Peripheral nerve-stimulated macrophages simulate a peripheral nerve-like regenerative response in rat transected optic nerve. Glia 24:329–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Leon S, Yin Y, Nguyen J, Irwin N, Benowitz LI (2000). Lens injury stimulates axon regeneration in the mature rat optic nerve. J Neurosci 20:4615–4626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lillo C, Velasco A, Jimeno D, Lara JM, Aijón J (1998). Ultrastructural organization of the optic nerve of the tench (Cyprinidae, Teleostei). J Neurocytol 27:593–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ling EA, Penney D, Leblond CP (1980). Use of carbon labelling to demonstrate the role of blood monocytes as precursors of the amoeboid cells present in the corpus callosum of postnatal rats. J Comp Neurol 193:631–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ling EA, Wong WC (1993). The origin and nature of ramified and amoeboid microglia: a historical review and current concepts. Glia 7:9–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Maciejewski-Lenoir D, Chen SZ, Feng LL, Maki R, Bacon KB (1999). Characterization of fractalkine in rat brain cells: migratory and activation signals for CX3CR-1-expressing microglia. J Immunol 163:1628–1635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Marín-Teva JL, Almendros A, Calvente R, Cuadros MA, Navascués J (1998). Tangential migration of ameboid microglia in the developing quail retina: mechanism of migration and migratory behavior. Glia 22:31–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Marín-Teva JL, Almendros A, Calvente R, Cuadros MA, Navascués J (1999a). Proliferation of actively migrating ameboid microglia in the developing quail retina. Anat Embryol 200:289–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Marin-Teva JL, Calvente R, Cuadros MA, Almendros A, Navascués J (1999b). Circumferential migration of ameboid microglia in the margin of the developing quail retina. Glia 27:226–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Marín-Teva JL, Cuadros MA, Calvente R, Almendros A, Navascués J (1999c). Naturally occurring cell death and migration of microglial precursors in the quail retina during normal development. J Comp Neurol 412:255–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Martín-Partido G, Cuadros MA, Martin C, Coltey P, Navascués J (1991). Macrophage-like cells invading the suboptic necrotic centres of the avian embryo diencephalon originate from haemopoietic precursors. J Neurocytol 20:962–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Milligan CE, Levitt P, Cunningham TJ (1991). Brain macrophages and microglia respond differently to lesions of the developing and adult visual system. J Comp Neurol 314: 136–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Morioka T, Streit WJ (1991). Expression of immunomolecules on microglial cells following neonatal sciatic nerve axotomy. J Neuroimmunol 35:21–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Moujahid A, Navascués J, Marín-Teva JL, Cuadros MA (1996). Macrophages during avian optic nerve development: relationship to cell death and differentiation into microglia. Anat Embryol 193:131–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nakajima K, Kikuchi Y, Ikoma E, Honda S, Ishikawa M, Liu Y, Kohsaka S (1998). Neurotrophins regulate the function of cultured microglia. Glia 24:272–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Naujoks-Manteuffel C, Niemann U (1994). Microglial cells in the brain of Pleurodeles waltl (Urodela, Salamandridae) after Wallerian degeneration in the primary visual system using Bandeiraea simplicifolia isolectin B4-cytochemistry. Glia 10:101–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Navascués J, Moujahid A, Quesada A, Cuadros MA (1994). Microglia in the avian retina: immunocytochemical demonstration in the adult quail. J Comp Neural 350:171–186.Google Scholar
  69. Navascués J, Moujahid A, Almendros A, Marín-Teva JL, Cuadros MA (1995). Origin of microglia in the quail retina: central-to-peripheral and vitreal-to-scleral migration of microglial precursors during development. J Comp Neurol 354:209–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Navascués J, Cuadros MA, Almendros A (1996). Development of microglia: evidence from studies in the avian central nervous system. In: Topical Issues in Microglia Research (Ling EA, Tan CK, Tan CBC, eds.), pp 43–64. Singapore: Singapore Neuroscience Association.Google Scholar
  71. Nona SN, Thomlinson AM, Stafford CA (1998). Temporary colonization of the site of lesion by macrophages is a prelude to the arrival of regenerated axons in injured goldfish optic nerve. J Neurocytol 27:791–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ono K, Yasui Y, Rutishauser U, Miller RH (1997). Focal ventricular origin and migration of oligodendrocyte precursors into the chick optic nerve. Neuron 19:283–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ono K, Tsumori T, Kishi T, Yokota S, Yasui Y (1998). Developmental appearance of oligodendrocytes in the embryonic chick retina. J Comp Neurol 398:309–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pearson HE, Payne BR, Cunningham TJ (1993). Microglial invasion and activation in response to naturally occurring neuronal degeneration in the ganglion cell layer of the postnatal cat retina. Dey Brain Res 76:249–255.Google Scholar
  75. Penfold PL, Provis JM (1986). Cell death in the development of the human retina: phagocytosis of pyknotic and apoptotic bodies by retinal cells. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 224:549–553.Google Scholar
  76. Penfold PL, Provis JM, Madigan MC, Van Driel D, Billson FA (1990). Angiogenesis in normal human retinal development: the involvement of astrocytes and macrophages. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 228:255–263.Google Scholar
  77. Pennell NA, Streit WJ (1997). Colonization of neural allografts by host microglial cells: relationship to graft neovascularization. Cell Transplant 6:221–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Perry VH, Hume DA, Gordon S (1985). Immunohistochemical localization of macrophages and microglia in the adult and developing mouse brain. Neuroscience 15:313–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Perry VH, Brown MC, Gordon S (1987). The macrophage response to central and peripheral nerve injury. A possible role for macrophages in regeneration. J Exp Med 165:1218–1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Perry VH, Gordon S (1991). Macrophages and the nervous system. Int Rev Cytol 125:203–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Polverini PJ, Cotran RS, Gimbrone MA, Unanue ER (1977). Activated macrophages induce vascular proliferation. Nature 269:804–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Provis JM, Penfold PL (1988). Cell death and the elimination of retinal axons during development. Progr Neurobiol 31:331–347.Google Scholar
  83. Provis JM, Penfold PL, Edwards AJ, Van Driel D (1995). Human retinal microglia: expression of immune markers and relationship to the glia limitans. Glia 14:243–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Provis JM, Diaz CM, Penfold PL (1996). Microglia in human retina: a heterogeneous population with distinct ontogenies. Persp Dey Neurobiol 3:213–222.Google Scholar
  85. Provis JM, Leech J, Diaz CM, Penfold PL, Stone J, Keshet E (1997). Development of the human retinal vasculature: cellular relations and VEGF expression. Exp Eye Res 65:555–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rabchevsky AG, Streit WJ (1997). Grafting of cultured microglial cells into the lesioned spinal cord of adult rats enhances neurite outgrowth. J Neurosci Res 47:34–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Reichert F, Rotshenker S (1996). Deficient activation of microglia during optic nerve degeneration. J Neuroimmunol 70:153–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Salvador-Silva M, Vidal-Sanz M, Villegas-Pérez MP (2000). Microglial cells in the retina of Carassius auratus: effects of optic nerve crush. J Comp Neurol 417:431–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sanyal S, De Ruiter A (1985). Inosine diphosphatase as a histochemical marker of retinal microvasculature, with special reference to transformation of microglia. Cell Tiss Res 241:291–297.Google Scholar
  90. Schnitzer J (1989). Enzyme-histochemical demonstration of microglial cells in the adult and postnatal rabbit retina. J Comp Neurol 282:249–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Senut MC, Alvarado-Mallart RM (1986). Development of the retinotectal system in normal quail embryos: cytoarchitectonic development and optic fiber innervation. Dev Brain Res 29:123–140.Google Scholar
  92. Stoll G, Jander S (1999). The role of microglia and macrophages in the pathophysiology of the CNS. Progr Neurobiol 58:233–247.Google Scholar
  93. Stone J, Itin A, Alon T, Pe’ er J, Gnessin H, Chan-Ling T, Keshet E (1995). Development of retinal vasculature is mediated by hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by neuroglia. J Neurosci 15:4738–4747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Streit WJ, Walter SA, Pennell NA (1999). Reactive microgliosis. Progr Neurobiol 57: 563–581.Google Scholar
  95. Takahashi K, Yamamura F, Naito M (1989). Differentiation, maturation, and proliferation of macrophages in the mouse yolk sac: a light-microscopic, enzyme-cytochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study. J Leukoc Biol 45:87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Thanos S (1991). The relationship of microglial cells to dying neurons during natural neuronal cell death and axotomy-induced degeneration of the rat retina. Eur J Neurosci 3:1189–1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Thanos S (1999). Genesis, neurotrophin responsiveness, and apoptosis of a pronounced direct connection between the two eyes of the chick embryo: a natural error or a meaningful developmental event? J Neurosci 19:3900–3917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Thanos S, Moore S, Hong YM (1996). Retinal Microglia. Progr Ret Eye Res 15:331–361.Google Scholar
  99. Vela-Hernández JM, Dalmau I, Gonzalez B, Castellano B (1997). Abnormal expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the spinal cord of the hypomyelinated Jimpy mutant mice. Brain Res 747:130–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Velasco A, Caminos E, Vecino E, Lara JM, Aijón J (1995). Microglia in normal and regenerating visual pathways of the tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758; Teleost): a study with tomato lectin. Brain Res 705:315–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Von Bartheld CS (1998). Neurotrophins in the developing and regenerating visual system. Histol Histopathol 13:437–459.Google Scholar
  102. Wilson MA, Gaze R, Goodbrand IA, Taylor JSH (1992). Regeneration in the Xenopus tadpole is preceded by a massive macrophage/microglial response. Anat Embryol 186:75–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wolswijk G (1994). G D3 + cells in the adult rat optic nerve are ramified microglia rather than O-2Aadult progenitor cells. Glia 10:244–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wolswijk G (1995). Strongly G D3 + cells in the developing and adult rat cerebellum belong to the microglial lineage rather than to the oligodendrocyte lineage. Glia 13:13–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Wong ROL, Hughes A (1987). Role of cell death in the topogenesis of neuronal distributions in the developing cat retinal ganglion cell layer. J Comp Neurol 262:496–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wu CH, Wen CY, Shieh JY, Ling EA (1996). Use of lectin as a tool for the study of microglial cells: expression and regulation of lectin receptors in normal development and under experimental conditions. In: Topical Issues in Microglia Research (Ling EA, Tan CK, Tan CBC, eds.), pp. 83–104. Singapore: Singapore Neuroscience Association.Google Scholar
  107. Zhang MZ, McKanna JA (1997). Gliogenesis in postnatal rat optic nerve: LC 1 + microglia and S100-β+ astrocytes. Dey Brain Res 101:27–36.Google Scholar
  108. Zhang Y, Porat RM, Alon T, Keshet E, Stone J (1999). Tissue oxygen levels control astrocyte movement and differentiation in developing retina. Dey Brain Res 118:135–145.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julio Navascués
  • Miguel A. Cuadros
  • Ruth Calvente
  • José L. Marín-Teva

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations