Aortic Valve Surgery

  • Bradley J. Harlan
  • Albert Starr
  • Fredric M. Harwin
Part of the Comprehensive Manuals of Surgical Specialties book series (CMSS)


Surgery of the aortic valve spans all age groups and encompasses a broad spectrum of pathologic anatomy and surgical technique. In this chapter we will illustrate aortic valvotomy and replacement and briefly review surgical relief of other forms of left ventricular outflow obstruction.


Aortic Valve Valve Replacement Aortic Stenosis Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic Regurgitation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adams PX, Cunningham JN, Trehan NK, Brazier JR, Reed GE, Spencer FC: Clinical experience using potassium-induced cardioplegia with hypothermia in aortic valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 75: 564, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agnew TM, Barratt-Boyes BG, Brandt PWT, Roche AHG, Lowe JB, O’Brien KP: Surgical resection in idiopathic hypertrophie subaortic stenosis with a combined approach through aorta and left ventricle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 74: 307, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson RP, Bonchek LI, Wood JA, Chapman RP, Starr A: The safety of combined aortic valve replacement and coronary bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg 15: 249, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barnhorst DA, Oxman HA, Connolly DC, Pluth JR, Danielson GK, Wallace RB, McGoon DC: Long-term follow-up of isolated replacement of the aortic or mitral valve with the Starr-Edwards prosthesis. Am J Cardiol 35: 228, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bernhard WF, Keane JF, Fellows KE, Litwin SB, Gross RE: Progress and Surgical Relief of Other Forms of Left Ventricular Outflow Obstruction problems in the surgical management of congenital aortic stenosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 66: 404, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bjork VO, Henze A: Ten years’ experience with the Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valve. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 78: 331, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blank RH, Pupello DF, Bessone LN, Harrison EE, Sbar S: Method of managing the small aortic annulus during valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg 22: 356, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bolen JL, Holloway EL, Zener JC, Harrison DC, Alderman EL: Evaluation of left ventricular function in patients with aortic regurgitation using afterload stress. Circulation 53: 132, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bonchek LI, Anderson RP, Rosch J: Should coronary arteriography be performed routinely before valve replacement? Am J Cardiol 31: 462, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bonchek LI, Starr A: Ball valve prostheses: Current appraisal of late results. Am J Cardiol 35: 843, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bonow RO, Henry WL, Kent KM, Ware JW, Glancy DL, Redwood DR, Itscoitz SB, McIntosh CL, Conkle DM, Morrow AG, Epstein SE: Predictors of late death due to congestive heart failure following operation for aortic regurgitation (abstr). Am J Cardiol 41: 382, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borer JS, Bacharach SL, Green MV, Kent KM, Henry WL, Rosing DR, Seides SF, Johnston GS, Epstein SE: Exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with aortic regurgitation: assessment with radionuclide cineangiography. Am J Cardiol 42: 351, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Borer JS, Rosing DR, Kent KM, Bacharach SL, Green MV, McIntosh CJ, Morrow AG, Epstein SE: Left ventricular function at rest and during exercise after aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 44: 1297, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boyd AD, Spencer FC, Isom W, Cunningham JN, Reed GE, Acinapura AJ, Tice DA: Infective endocarditis: an analysis of 54 surgically treated patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 73: 23, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Braunwald E, Lambrew CT, Rockoff SD, Ross J Jr, Morrow AG: Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis: I. A description of the disease based upon an analysis of 64 patients. Circulation 30: 3, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bristow JD, Kremkau EL: Hemodynamic changes after valve replacement with Starr-Edwards prostheses. Am J Cardiol 35: 716, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bristow JD, McCord CW, Starr A, Ritzmann LW, Griswold HE: Clinical and hemodynamic results of aortic valvular replacement with a ball valve prosthesis. Circulation 29: 36, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bristow JD, Parker BM, Haug WA: Hemopericardium following rupture of a bacterial aortic sinus aneurysm. Am J Cardiol 6: 355, 1960.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buckley MJ, Mundth ED, Daggett WM, Austen WG: Surgical management of the complications of sepsis involving the aortic valve, aortic root, and ascending aorta. Ann Thorac Surg 12: 391, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carabello BA, Green LH, Grossman W, Cohn LH, Koster JK, Collins JJ: Hemodynamic determinants of prognosis of aortic valve replacement in critical aortic stenosis and advanced congestive heart failure. Circulation 62: 42, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chesler E, Korns ME, Porter GE, Reyes CN, Edwards JE: False aneurysm of the left ventricle secondary to bacterial endocarditis with perforation of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa. Circulation 37: 518, 1968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Clark DG, McAnulty JH, Rahimtoola SH: Valve replacement in aortic insufficiency with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 61: 411, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cohn LH, Koster JK, Mee RBB, Collins JJ: Long-term follow-up of the Hancock bioprosthetic heart valve. Circulation 60 (Suppl I): I - 87, 1979.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Conkle DM, Jones M, Morrow AG: Treatment of congenital aortic stenosis. Arch Surg 107: 649, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cooley DA, Bloodwell RD, Hallman GL, LaSorte AF, Leachman RD, Chapman DW: Surgical treatment of muscular subaortic stenosis: results from septectomy in twenty-six patients. Circulation 35,36(Suppl I): I - 124, 1967.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cooley DA, Leachman RD, Hallman GL, Gerami S, Hall RJ: Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis: surgical treatment including mitral valve replacement. Arch Surg 103: 606, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cooley DA, Norman JC: Techniques in Cardiac Surgery. Houston, Texas Medical Press, 1975, p 130.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cooley DA, Norman JC, Mullins CE, Grace RR: Left ventricle to abdominal aorta conduits for relief of aortic stenosis. Cardiovasc Dis, Bull Texas Heart Inst 2: 376, 1975.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Copeland JG, Griepp RB, Stinson EB, Shumway NE: Long-term follow-up after isolated aortic valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 74: 875, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Croke RP, Pifarre R, Sullivan H, Gunnar R, Loeb H: Reversal of advanced left ventricular dysfunction following aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 24: 38, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Danielson GK, Titus JL, DuShane JW: Successful treatment of aortic valve endocarditis and aortic root abscesses by insertion of prosthetic valve in ascending aorta and placement of bypass grafts to coronary arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 67: 443, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Doty DB, Polansky DB, Jenson CB: Supravalvular aortic stenosis. Repair by extended aortoplasty. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 74: 362, 1971.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Edmunds LH Jr, Wagner HR, Heymann MA: Aortic valvulotomy in neonates. Circulation 61: 421, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ferrans VJ, Spray TL, Billingham ME, Roberts WE: Structural changes in glutaraldehyde-treated porcine heterografts used as substitute cardiac valves. Am J Cardiol 41: 1159, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fifer MA, Gunther S, Grossman W, Mirsky I, Carabello B, Barry WH: Myocardial contractile function in aortic stenosis as determined from the rate of stress development during isovolumic systole. Am J Cardiol 44: 1318, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fischl SJ, Gorlin R, Herman MV: Cardiac shape and function in aortic valve disease: physiologic and clinical implications. Am J Cardiol 39: 170, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Forman R, Firth BG, Barnard MS: Prognostic significance of preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction and valve lesion in patients with aortic valve replacement. Am J Cardiol 45: 1120, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Frank MJ, Abdulla AM, Canedo MI, Saylors RE: Long-term medical management of hypertrophie obstructive cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 42: 993, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Frank S, Johnson A, Ross J Jr: Natural history of valvular aortic stenosis. Br Heart J 35: 41, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Frantz PT, Murray GF, Wilcox BR: Surgical management of left ventricular-aortic discontinuity complicating bacterial endocarditis. Ann Thorac Surg 29: 1, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Friedman WF, Pappelbaum SJ: Indications for hemodynamic evaluation and surgery in congenital aortic stenosis. Pediatr Clin North Am 18: 1207, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Girardet RE, Wheat MW: Technique of aortic valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 71: 446, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goldschlager N, Pfeifer J, Cohn K, Popper R, Selzer A: The natural history of aortic regurgitation. A clinical and hemodynamic study. Am J Med 54: 577, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gault JH, Covell JW, Braunwald E, Ross J: Left ventricular performance following correction of free aortic regurgitation. Circulation 42: 773, 1970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gonzalez-Lavin L, Scappatura E, Lise M, Ross ND: Mycotic aneurysms of the aortic root: a complication of aortic valve endocarditis. Ann Thorac Surg 9: 551, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Greves J, Clark D, Greenberg B, McAnulty J, Starr A, Rahimtoola S: Late survival after valve replacement for severe isolated aortic incompetence (abstr). Am J Cardiol 45: 440, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Grossman W, Jones D, McLaurin LP: Wall stress and patterns of hypertrophy in the human left ventricle. J Clin Invest 56:56., 1975.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gunther S, Grossman W: Determinants of ventricular function in pressure-overload hypertrophy in man. Circulation 59: 679, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Henry WL, Bonow RO, Borer JS, Kent KM, Ware JH, Redwood DR, Itscoitz Surgical Relief of Other Forms of Left Ventricular Outflow Obstruction SB, McIntosh CL, Morrow AG, Epstein SE: Evaluation of aortic valve replacement in patients with valvular aortic stenosis. Circulation 61: 814, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Henry WL, Bonow RO, Borer JS, Ware JH, Kent KM, Redwood DR, McIntosh CL, Morrow AG, Epstein SE: Observations on the optimum time for operative intervention for aortic regurgitation: I. Evaluation of the results of aortic valve replacement in symptomatic patients. Circulation 61: 471, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Henry WL, Bonow RO, Rosing DR, Epstein SE: Observations on the optimum time for operative intervention for aortic regurgitation: II. Serial echocardiographic evaluation of asymptomatic patients. Circulation 61: 484, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Henry WL, Clark CE, Epstein SE: Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH): the unifying link in the IHSS disease spectrum. Circulation 47: 827, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hirshfield JW, Epstein SE, Roberts AJ, Glancy DL, Morrow AG: Indices predicting long-term survival after valve replacement in patients with aortic regurgitation and patients with aortic stenosis. Circulation 50: 1190, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Isom OW, Spencer FC, Glassman E, Teiko P, Boyd AD, Cunningham JN: Long-term results in 1,375 patients undergoing valve replacement with the Starr-Edwards cloth-covered composite-seat prostheses: a six-year appraisal. Ann Surg 186: 310, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jack WD II, Kelly DT: Long-term follow-up of valvulotomy for congenital aortic stenosis. Am J Cardiol 38: 231, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jones EL, Craver JM, Morris DC, King SB III, Douglas JS Jr, Franch RH, Hatcher CR Jr, Morgan EA: Hemodynamic and clinical evaluation of the Hancock xenograft bioprosthesis for aortic valve replacement (with emphasis on management of the small aortic root). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 75: 300, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Katz NM, Buckley MJ, Liberthson RR: Discrete membranous subaortic stenosis. Circulation 56: 1034, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kelly DT, Wulfsberg E, Rowe RD: Discrete subaortic stenosis. Circulation 46: 309, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kennedy JW, Doces J, Stewart DK: Left ventricular function before and following aortic valve replacement. Circulation 56: 944, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kirklin JW, Pacifico AD: Surgery for acquired valvular heart disease. N Engl J Med 288: 133, 194, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Konno S, Imai Y, Iida Y, Nakajima M, Tatsuno K: A new method for prosthetic valve replacement in congenital aortic stenosis associated with hypoplasia of the aortic ring. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 70: 910, 1975.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kouchoukos NT, Karp RB, Lell WA: Replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic valve with a composite graft: results in 25 patients. Ann Thorac Surg 24: 140, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lakier JB, Khaja F, Magilligan DJ Jr, Goldstein S: Porcine xenograft valves: long-term (60–89 month) follow-up. Circulation 62: 313, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lakier JB, Lewis AB, Heymann MA, Stanger P, Hoffman JIE, Rudolph AM: Isolated aortic stenosis in the neonate. Natural history and hemodynamic considerations. Circulation 50: 801, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lawson RM, Bonchek LI, Menashe V, Starr A: Late results of surgery for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 71: 334, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lefrak EA, Starr A: Cardiac Valve Prostheses. New York, Appleton-CenturyCrofts, 1979.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Linhart JW, Wheat MW: Myocardial dysfunction following aortic valve replacement: the significance of coronary artery disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 54: 259, 1967.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Macmanus Q, Grunkemeier G, Housman L, Maloney C, Harlan BJ, Starr A: Early results with composite-strut caged-ball prostheses. Am J Cardiol 46: 566, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Macmanus Q, Grunkemeier GL, Lambert LE, Teply JF, Harlan BJ, Starr A: Year of operation as a risk factor in the late results of valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 80: 834, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Manouguian S, Seybold-Epting W: Patch enlargement of the aortic valve ring by extending the aortic incision into the anterior mitral leaflet. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 78: 402, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Maron BJ, Ferrans VJ, Roberts WC: Myocardial ultrastructure in patients with chronic aortic valve disease. Am J Cardiol 35: 725, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Maron BJ, Lipson LC, Roberts WC, Savage DD, Epstein SE: “Malignant” hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: identification of a subgroup of families with unusually frequent premature death. Am J Cardiol 41: 1133, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Maron BJ, Merrill WH, Freier PA, Kent KM, Epstein SE, Morrow AG: Longterm clinical course and symptomatic status of patients after operation for hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Circulation 57: 1205, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    McAlpine WA: Heart and Coronary Arteries. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer-Verlag, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    McAnulty JH, Rahimtoola SH: Surgery for infective endocarditis. JAMA 242: 77, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    McGoon DC, Mankin HT, Vlad P, Kirklin JW: The surgical treatment of supra-valvular aortic stenosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 41: 125, 1961.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mills J, Utley J, Abbott J: Heart failure in infective endocarditis: predisposing factors, course, and treatment. Chest 66: 2, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Morrow AG: Personal communication. 1980.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Morrow AG, Reitz BA, Epstein SE, Henry WL, Conkle DM, Itscoitz SB, Redwood DR: Operative treatment in hypertrophic subaortic stenosis: techniques and the results of pre-and postoperative assessment in 83 patients. Circulation 52: 88, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Newfeld EA, Muster AJ, Paul MH, Idriss FS, Riker WL: Discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis in childhood. Am J Cardiol 38: 53, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Okies JE, Bradshaw MW, Williams TW: Valve replacement in bacterial endocarditis. Chest 63: 898, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    O’Rourke RA, Crawford MH: Timing of valve replacement in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation. Circulation 61: 493, 1980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Oyer PE, Stinson EB, Reitz BA, Miller DC, Rossiter SJ, Shumway NE: Longterm evaluation of the porcine xenograft bioprosthesis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 78: 343, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pantely G, Morton M, Rahimtoola SH: Effects of successful, uncomplicated valve replacement on ventricular hypertrophy, volume, and performance in aortic stenosis and in aortic incompetence. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 75: 383, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Parker FB, Thomas FD, Poirier RA, Markowitz AHM, Eich RH: Left ventricular function following aortic valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 79: 121, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Peterson CR, Herr R, Crisera RV, Starr A, Bristow JD, Griswold HE: The failure of hemodynamic improvement after valve replacement surgery: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Ann Int Med 66: 1, 1967.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pupello DF, Blank RH, Bessone LN, Harrison E, Sbar S: Surgical management of the small aortic annulus: hemodynamic evaluation. Chest 74: 163, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rahimtoola SH: Early valve replacement for preservation of ventricular function? Am J Cardiol 40: 472, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rahimtoola SH (ed): Infective Endocarditis. New York, Grune Stratton, 1978.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rahimtoola SH: The problem of valve prosthesis-patient mismatch. Circulation 58: 20, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rahimtoola SH: Valve replacement should not be performed in all asymptomatic patients with severe aortic incompetence. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 79: 163, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rapaport E: Natural history of aortic and mitral valve disease. Am J Cardiol 35: 221, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rastan H, Koncz J: Aortoventriculoplasty. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 71: 920, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rastelli GB, McGoon DC, Ongley PA, Mankin GT, Kirklin JW: Surgical treatment of supravalvular aortic stenosis. Report of 16 cases and review of the literature. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 51: 873, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Richardson JV, Karp RB, Kirklin JW, Dismukes WE: Treatment of infective endocarditis: a 10-year comparative analysis. Circulation 58: 589, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Richardson JV, Kouchoukos NT, Wright JO III, Karp RB: Combined aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization: results in 220 patients. Circulation 59: 75, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rigo P, Alderson PO, Robertson RM, Becker LC, Wagner HN: Measurement of aortic and mitral regurgitation by gated cardiac blook pool scans. Circulation 60: 306, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rittenhouse EA, Sauvage LR, Stamm SJ, Mansfield PB, Hall DG, Herndon PS: Radical enlargement of the aortic root and outflow tract to allow valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg 27: 367, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ross J Jr: Afterload mismatch and preload reserve: a conceptual framework for the analysis of ventricular function. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 18: 255, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ross J Jr, Braunwald E: Aortic stenosis. Circulation 38 (Suppl V): V - 61, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ross J Jr, Sonnenblick EH, Taylor RR, Spotnitz HM, Covell JW: Diastolic geometry and sarcomere lengths in the chronically dilated canine left ventricle. Cire Res 28: 49, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Samuels DA, Cureman GD, Friedlich AL, Buckley, MU Austen WG: Valve replacement for aortic regurgitation: long-term follow-up with factors influencing the results. Circulation 60: 647, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sapsford RN, Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, Karp RB, Kouchoukos NT, Pacifico AD, Roe CR, Bradley EL: Coronary perfusion versus cold ischemic arrest during: a randomized study. Circulation 49: 1190, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schwarz F, Flameng W, Langebartels F, Sesto M, Walter P, Schlepper M: Impaired left ventricular function in chronic aortic valve disease: survival and function after replacement by Bjork-Shiley prosthesis. Circulation 60: 48, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Selzer A: Cardiac valve replacement: an unanswered question. Am J Cardiol 37: 322, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Shean FC, Austen WG, Buckley MJ, Mundth ED, Scannell JG, Daggett WM: Survival after Starr-Edwards aortic valve replacement. Circulation 44: 1, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shumacker HB Jr: Aneurysms of the aortic sinuses of Valsalva due to bacterial endocarditis, with special reference to their operative management. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 63: 896, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Slaughter L, Morris JE, Starr A: Prosthetic valvular endocarditis: a 12-year review. Circulation 47: 1319, 1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Smith N, McAnulty JH, Rahimtoola SH: Severe aortic stenosis with impaired left ventricular function and clinical heart failure: results of valve replacement. Circulation 58: 255, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sorensen SG, Groves BM, O’Rourke RA, Chaudhuri T: Noninvasive quantitation of valvular regurgitation by gated radionuclide angiography. J Nucl Med 20: 629, 1979.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Starr A, Dotter C, Griswold HE: Supravalvular aortic stenosis: diagnosis and treatment. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 81: 134, 1961.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Starr A, Grunkemeier G, Lambert LE, Thomas DR, Sugimura S, Lefrak EA: Aortic valve replacement: a ten-year followup of noncloth-covered vs cloth-covered caged ball prosthesis. Circulation 56 (Suppl II): II - 133, 1977.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Stinson EB, Griepp RB, Vosti K, Copeland JG, Shumway NE: Operative treatment of active endocarditis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 71: 659, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Syracuse DC, Gaudiani VA, Kastl DG, Henry WL, Morrow AG: Intraoperative, intracardiac echocardiography during left ventriculotomy and myectomy for hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Circulation 58 (Suppl I): I - 23, 1978.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Thompson R, Yacoub M, Ahmed M, Seabra-Gomes R, Rickards A, Towers M: Influence of preoperative left ventricular function on results of homograft replacement of the aortic valve for aortic stenosis. Am J Cardiol 43: 929, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tompsett R, Lubash GD: Aortic valve perforation in bacterial endocarditis. Circulation 23: 662, 1961.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Utley JR: Annular erosion and pericarditis: complications of endocarditis of the aortic root. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 64: 76, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Walter P, Schwarz F, Scheld H, Hehrlein FW: Eight years of experience with the Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valve prosthesis in 833 patients. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 27: 178, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wigle ED, Labrosse CJ: Sudden, severe aortic insufficiency. Circulation 32: 708, 1965.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley J. Harlan
    • 1
  • Albert Starr
    • 1
  • Fredric M. Harwin
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Cardiopulmonary SurgeryUniversity of Oregon Health Sciences CenterPortlandUSA
  2. 2.PortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations