The Inorganic Carbon Complex: Alkalinity, Acidity, CO2, pH, Total Inorganic Carbon, Hardness

  • Robert G. Wetzel
  • Gene E. Likens


Precipitation falling on the surface of the Earth as rain or snow contains a variety of gases. Aerosols or dust particles also may be dissolved or picked up from the air. Thus, by the time the water reaches the Earth’s surface, it is no longer pure. As it flows over or penetrates into plants or the ground, water dissolves more gases, notably carbon dioxide, and various mineral substances with which it comes into contact.


Methyl Orange Inorganic Carbon Dissolve Inorganic Carbon Total Alkalinity Equivalence Point 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert G. Wetzel
    • 1
  • Gene E. Likens
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Ecosystem StudiesThe New York Botanical Garden, Cary ArboretumMillbrookUSA

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