Physical Characteristics: Lake Models

  • Robert G. Wetzel
  • Gene E. Likens


The hydrodynamics of water movement is an integral component of a functional lake system. The importance of water movements and associated turbulence either has been underestimated or neglected in a large majority of limnological investigations. Consideration must be given to the effects of water movements on stratification and on the distribution of temperature, dissolved gases and nutrients, and biota.


Methylene Blue Water Movement Heat Budget Heat Lamp Moderate Wind 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert G. Wetzel
    • 1
  • Gene E. Likens
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Ecosystem StudiesThe New York Botanical Garden, Cary ArboretumMillbrookUSA

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