Experimental Manipulation of Model Ecosystems

  • Robert G. Wetzel
  • Gene E. Likens


Ecosystems have been described as the “functional units of the landscape” (Odum, 1971), where organisms interact with their physical-chemical environment and with other organisms. For limnologists, lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers and their associated drainage basins represent the ecosystems of interest. However, these ecosystems are large and complex, and thus it is difficult to decipher the various interactions that occur within them.


Experimental Manipulation Model Ecosystem Seed Shrimp Culture Chamber Washout Rate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert G. Wetzel
    • 1
  • Gene E. Likens
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Ecosystem StudiesThe New York Botanical Garden, Cary ArboretumMillbrookUSA

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