Laser Machining Analysis

  • George Chryssolouris
Part of the Mechanical Engineering Series book series (MES)


This chapter surveys many of the most important theoretical works in laser surface heating, drilling, cutting, grooving and three-dimensional machining found in recent literature which are based on an understanding of the physics of laser/material interaction. These process models are needed in order to choose correct operating parameters and to implement closed-loop process control. These works entail both analytical and numerical modelling to find relationships between operating parameters, temperature distribution and erosion front geometry. The phenomena occurring during laser machining processes, such as plasma formation, creation of striations, and changes in surface absorption of laser beam energy are also explained in a theoretical context.


Material Removal Groove Depth Laser Machine Kerf Width Laser Drilling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Atanasoc, P.A., and S.I. Gendjov, “Laser Cutting of Glass Tubing: A Theoretical Model,” J. Phys. D: Applied Physics, Vol. 20 (1987) 597–601.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barber, R., “Hole Drilling with Lasers,” Creative Manufacturing Engineering Programs, Rept. No. MR74–951.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Belov, I.A., LP. Ginzburg, and L.I. Shub, “Supersonic Underexpanded Jet Impingement upon Flat Plate,” International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 16 (1973) 2067–2076.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brugger, K., “Exact Solutions for the Temperature Rise in a Laser-Heated Slab,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Feb. 1972), 577–583.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bunting, K.A., and G. Cornfield, “Toward a General Theory of Cutting:A Relationship Between the Incident Power Density and the Cut Speed,” Journal of Heat Transfer (Feb 1975), 116–122.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bush, A.J., and F.J. Kromer, “Simplification of the Hole-Drilling Method of Residual Stress Measurement,” ISA Transactions, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Dec. 1973), 249–259.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chryssolouris, G., et al., “Theoretical Aspects of a Laser Machine Tool,” Journal of Engineering for Industry, ASME, Vol. 110, No. 1 (Feb. 1988), 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chryssolouris, G., and J. Bredt, “Machining of Ceramics Using a Laser Lathe,” International Ceramic Review, Vol. 37, No. 2 (1988), 43–45.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chryssolouris, G., and J. Bredt, and S. Kordas, “Laser Turning for Difficult to Machine Materials,” Proceedings of the Simposium on Machining of Ceramic Materials and Components, Amer. Soc. of Mech. Eng., Vol. 17 (Nov. 1985), 9–17.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chryssolouris, G., and J. Bredt, and S. Kordas, “A New Machine Tool Concept Based on Lasers,” Proceedings of the XIV North Americal Manufacturing Research ConferencelNAMRC XIV, Soc. of Mfg. Eng. (May 1986), 245–250.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chryssolouris, G., and J. Bredt, “Laser Turning of Steels,” 2nd Biennial International Machine Tool Research Forum (Sept. 1987).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chryssolouris, G., and W.C. Choi, “Gas Jet Effects on Laser Cutting,” SP IE Conf on High Power Lasers (Jan. 1989).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chryssolouris, G., and W.C. Choi, “Theoretical Aspects of Laser Grooving,” Proceedings, 14th Conference on Production Research and Technology (Jan. 1987), 323–331.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chryssolouris, G., W.C. Choi, S.B. Kyi, and P. Sheng, “Investigation of the Effects of a Gas Jet on Laser Grooving,” Proceedings of the XVI North America! Manufacturing Research ConferencelNAMRC XVI, Soc. of Mfg. Eng. (May 1987), 217–222.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chryssolouris, G, P.S. Sheng, and W.C. Choi, “Analysis on the Laser Machining Process for Ceramics and Composite Materials,” Proceedings, 15th Conference on Production Research and Technology (Jan. 1989).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cockayne, B., and D.B. Gasson, “The Machining of Oxides Using Gas Lasers,” Journal of Material Science, Vol. 6 (1971), 126–129.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Comini, G., S.D. Guidice, R.W. Lewis, and O.C. Zienkiewics, “Fininte Element Solution of Non-Linear Heat Conduction Problems with Special Reference to Phase Change,” International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol.8 (1974), 613–624.ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Copley, S.M., M. Bass, and R.G. Wallace, “Shaping Silicon Compound Ceramics with a Continuous Wave Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Proceedings, Second International Symposium on Ceramic Machining and Finishing (1978), 97–104.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dabby, F.W., and U.-C. Paek, “High-Intensity Laser-Induced Vaporization and Explosion of Solid Material,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. QE-8, No. 2 (Feb. 1972), 106–111.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Decker, L, J. Rue, and V. Atzert, “Physical Models and Technological Aspects of Laser Gas Cutting,” Proceedings of SPIE (Sept. 1983), 81–88.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Duley, W.W., Laser Processing and Analysis of Materials, Plenum Press, New York, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    El-Adawi, M.K., “Laser Melting of Solids-An Exact Solution for Time Intervals Less or Equal to the Transit Time,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 60, No. 7 (Oct. 1986), 2256–2265.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    El-Adawi, M.K., and E.F. Elshehawey, “Heating a Slab Induced by a Time-Dependent Laser Irradiance-An Exact Solution,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 60, No. 7 (Oct. 1986), 2250–2255.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Eloy, J.-F., Power Lasers, Halsted Press, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fieret, J., and B.A. Ward, “Circular and Non-Circular Nozzle Exits for Supersonic Gas Jet Assist in CO2 Laser Cutting,” Proceedings, Third International Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing (LIM3), (1986).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gubanova, O.I., V.V. Lunev, and L.N. Plastinina, “The Central Breakaway Zone with Interaction between a Supersonic Unexpanded Jet and a Barrier,” Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 6 (1973), 298–301.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gummer, J.H., and B.L. Hunt, “The Impingement of Non-Uniform, Axisymmetric Supersonic Jets on a Perpendicular Flat Plate,” Israel J. Technology, Vol. 12 (1974), 221–235.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hamilton, D.C., and LR. Pashby, “Hole Drilling Studies with a Variable Pulse Length CO2 Laser,” Optics and Laser Technology (Aug. 1979), 183–188.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hassanein, A.M., and G.L. Kulcinski, “Simulation of Rapid Heating in Fusion Reactor Forst Walls Using the Green’s Function Approach,” Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 106 (Aug. 1984), 486–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kobayashi, A., and Y., “Laser Drilling of Nonmetals,” Toshiba Review (Dec. 1971), 8–14.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lee, CS., A. Goel, and H. Osada, “Parametric Studies of Pulsed-Laser Cutting of Thin Metal Plates,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 58, No. 3 (Aug. 1985), 1339–1343.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Longfellow, J., “High Speed Drilling in Alumina Substrates with a CO2 Laser,” Ceramic Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 3 (1971), 251–253.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Luxon, J., Lasers in Manufacturing, Prentice-Hall, Engel wood Cliffs, NJ, 1987.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Masters, J.I., “Problem of Intense Surface Heating of a Slab Accompanied by Change of Phase,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 1956), 477–484.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miyazaki, T., “Drilling Characteristics of Metal Foil in Electron Beam Processing,” Bulletin of the Japan Society of Precision Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Dec. 1979), 207–212.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Modest, M.F., and H. Abakians, “Heat Conduction in a Moving Semi-Infinite Solid Subjected to Pulsed Laser Irradiation,” Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 108 (Aug. 1986), 597–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Modest, M.F., and H. Abakians, “Evaporative Cutting of a Semi-Infinite Body with a Moving CW Laser,” Journal of Heat Transfer (Aug. 1986), 602–607.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nakada, Y., and M.A. Giles, “X-Ray and Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Laser-Drilled Holes in AI2O3 Substrates,” Journal of American Ceramic Society — Discussion and Notes, Vol. 54, No. 7, 354–355.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nielsen, S.E., Laser Cutting with High Pressure Cutting Gases and Mixed Cutting Gases, Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Manufacturing Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (1985).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pack, U.C., and F.P. Gagliano, “Thermal Analysis of Laser Drilling Processes,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. QE-8, No. 2 (Feb. 1972), 112–119.ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Petring, D., P. Abels, E. Beyer, and G. Herziger, “Werkstoffbearbeitung mit Laserstrahlung,” Feinwerktechnik & Messtechnik, Vol. 96 (1988), 364–372.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ready, J.F., “Effects Due to Absorption of Laser Radiation,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Feb. 1965), 462–468.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ruselowski, J.M., “Laser Selection for Cutting,” SME Technical Paper (1987), Paper No. MR87–235.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schulz, W., G. Simon, H.M. Urbassek, and I. Decker, “On Laser Fusion Cutting of Metals,” J. Phys. D: Applied Physics, Vol. 20 (1987), 481–488.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schuoecker, D., and W. Abel, “Material Removal Mechanism of Laser Cutting,” Proceedings of the SPIE (Sept. 1983), 88–95.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schuocker, D., and B. Walter, “Theoretical Model of Oxygen Assisted Laser Cutting,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., No. 72 (Aug. 1984), 111–116.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schuocker, D., “Theoretical Model of Reactive Gas Assisted Laser Cutting Including Dynamic Effects,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 650 (1986), 210–219.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schuocker, D., and P. Muller, “Dynamic Effects in Laser Cutting and Formation of Periodic Striatums,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 801 (1987), 258–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schvan, P, and R.E. Thomas, “Time-Dependent Heat Flow Calculation of CW Laser-Induced Melting of Silicon,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 57, No. 10 (May 1985), 4738–4741.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sparks, M., “Theory of Laser Heating of Solids: Metals,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 47, No. 3, (Mar. 1976), 837–849.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stürmer, E., and M. von Allmen, “Influence of Laser-Supported Detonation Waves on Metal Drilling with Pulsed CO2 Lasers,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 49, No. 11 (Nov. 1978), 5648–5654.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vicanek, M., and G. Simon, “Momentum and Heat Transfer of an Inert Gas Jet to the Melt in Laser Cutting,” J. Phys. D: Applied Physics., Vol. 20 (1987), 1191–1196.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vicanek, M., G. Simon, H. M. Urbassek, and I. Decker, “Hydrodynamical Instability of Melt Flow in Laser Cutting,” J. Phys. D: Applied Physics, Vol. 20 (1987), 140–145.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    von Allmen, M., “Laser Drilling Velocity in Metals,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 47, No. 12 (Dec. 1976), 5460–5463.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    von Allmen, M., P. Blaser, K. Affolter, and E. Stürmer, “Absorption Phenomena in Metal Drilling with Nd-Lasers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. QE-14, No. 2 (Feb. 1978), 85–88.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Waechter, D., P. Schvan, R.E. Thomas, and N.G. Tarr, “Modelling of Heat Flow in Multilayer CW Laser-Annealed Structures,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 59, No. 10 (May 1986), 3371–3374.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wagner, R.E., “Laser Drilling Mechanics,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 45, No. 10 (Oct. 1974), 4631–4637.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Warren, R.E., and M. Sparks, “Laser Heating of a Slab Having Temperature-Dependent Surface Absorptance,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 50, No. 12 (Dec. 1979), 7952–7957.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Chryssolouris
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Manufacturing and ProductivityMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations