Importance of Hydric Soils and Near-Lake Areas as Phosphorus Source Areas in the Lake Champlain Basin: Evidence from a Landscape-Level Model

  • Nicole Seltzer
  • Deane Wang
Conference paper


The passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 made maintaining and improving surface water quality a national goal. Much of the initial effort was levied against point sources of pollution (Puckett, 1995); however, controlling non-point pollution has become a priority as control of the remaining point source problems becomes increasingly less cost-effective. Non-point phosphorus (P) pollution, in particular, has received frequent public attention as it threatens many of our nation’s streams and rivers. Eutrophication, typically caused by high P levels, has been identified as the number one water quality problem in many regions (NYC DEP, 1999; LCBP, 1994).


Nonpoint Source Hydric Soil Reservoir Management Environmental System Research Institute Natural Resource Conservation Service 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., and Schwarz, G.E., 2000, Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico, Nature 403: 758–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auer, M.T., S. Doerr, S. after, and E. Owens, 1997, A Zero Degree of Freedom Total Phosphorus Model: 1. Development for Onondaga Lake, New York, Journal of Lake and Reservoir Management 13(2):118130.Google Scholar
  3. Bann, K. 1986. Application of the ANSWERS model in a nonpoint source program: final report. Wisconsin: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Nonpoint Source and Land Management Section.Google Scholar
  4. Beasley, D.B., L.F. Huggins, and E.J. Monke. 1982. Modeling sediment yields from agricultural watersheds. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 37: 113–117.Google Scholar
  5. Beasley, D.B., E.J. Monke, E.R. Miller, and L.F. Huggins. 1985. Using simulation to assess the impacts of conservation tillage on movement of sediment and phosphorus into Lake Erie. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 40: 233–237.Google Scholar
  6. Beaulac, M., and K. Reckhow. 1982. An Examination of land Use–Nutrient Export Relationships. Water Resources Bulletin, 18: 1013–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brady, Nyle C. 1990. The Nature and Property of Soils ( 10th ed. ). Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Budd, L.F., and D.W. Meals. 1994. Lake Champlain nonpoint source pollution assessment. Lake Champlain Basin Program Technical Report M and 6B. Grand Isle, Vermont.Google Scholar
  9. Cassell, E.A., J.M Dorioz, and D.C. Braun. 1998. Modeling Phosphorus Dynamics in Ecosystems: Mass Balance and Dynamic Simulation Approaches. Journal of Environmental Quality 27 (2): 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clausen, J.C., and D.W. Meals. 1989. Water quality achievable with agricultural best management practices. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 594–596.Google Scholar
  11. Dillon, P., and W. Kirchner. 1975. The Effects of Geology and Land Use on the Export of Phosphorous from Watersheds. Water Research 9: 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dorioz, J.M., E. Pilleboue, and A. Ferhi. 1989. Phosphorus dynamics in watersheds: role of trapping processes in sediments. Water Research 23 (2): 147–158.Google Scholar
  13. Driver, N., and B. Troutman. 1989. Regression models for estimating urban storm-runoff quality and quantity in the United States. Journal of Hydrology 109: 221–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Environment Canada. 1994. Monthly Climate Data and 1961–1990 Normals on CD-ROM. Canadian Meteorological Service, Dorval, Quebec, Canada.Google Scholar
  15. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). 1999. Arc View 3.2 On-line software help. Redlands, CA. Gburek, William J. 1990. Initial contributing area of a small watershed. Journal of Hydrology, 118: 387–403.Google Scholar
  16. Gburek, W.J., and A.N. Sharpley. 1998. Hydrologic controls on phosphorus losses from upland agricultural watersheds. Journal of Environmental Quality 27: 267–277.Google Scholar
  17. Harris, G.P. 1998. Predictive models in spatially and temporally variable freshwater systems. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 80–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heidtke, T.M., and M.T. Auer. 1993. Application of a GIS-based nonpoint source nutrient loading model for assessment of land development scenarios and water quality in Owasco Lake, New York. Water Science and Technology 28(3–5): 595-Google Scholar
  19. Hegman, W., D. Wang, and C. Borer. 1999. Estimation of Basinwide Nonpoint Phosphorus Export - Revised Final Draft Report. Lake Champlain Basin Technical Report #31. Grand Lsle, Vermont.Google Scholar
  20. Hill, Alan R. 1981. Stream Phosphorous Exports from Watersheds with Contrasting Land Uses in Southern Ontario. Water Resources Bulletin, 17: 627–634.Google Scholar
  21. Hill, A.R. 1997. The potential role of in-stream and hyporheic environments as buffer zones. Pages 115–127 in N.E. Haycock T.P. Burn, K.W.T. Goulding, and G. Pinay (eds.) Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection. Quest Environmental, U.KGoogle Scholar
  22. House, W.A., and M.S. Warwick. 1998. A mass-balance approach to quantifying the importance of in-stream processes during nutrient transport in a large river catchment. The Science of the Total Environment 210/211: 139–152.Google Scholar
  23. Johnes, P.J. 1996. Evaluation and management of the impact of land use change on the nitrogen and phosphorus load delivered to surface waters: the export coefficient modelling approach. Journal of Hydrology 183: 323–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnes, P.J., and A.L. Heathwaite. 1997. Modelling the impact of land use change on water quality in agricultural catchments. Hydrological Processes 11: 269–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnes, P.J., and R.A. Hodgkinson. 1998. Phosphorus loss from agricultural catchments: pathways and implications for management. Soil Use and Management 14: 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johnson, L., C. Richards, G. Host, and J. Arthur. 1997. Landscape influences on water chemistry in Midwestern stream ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 37: 193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson, L, and S. Gage. 1997. Landscape approaches to the analysis of aquatic ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 37: 113–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jordan, T.E., D.L. Correll, and D.E. Weller. 1997. Nonpoint source discharges of nutrients from Piedmont watersheds of Chesapeake Bay. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33 (3): 631–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knisel, W.G. Jr. (ed.). 1980. A Field Scale Model for Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems, Vol. 3, USDA Conservation Research Report 26, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  30. Lake Champlain Basin Program. 1994. Opportunities for Action: An evolving plan for the future of the Lake Champlain Basin. Lake Champlain Basin Program Technical Lamon, E.C. 1995. A Regression Model for the Prediction of Chlorophyll a in lake Okeechobee, Florida. Lake and Reservoir Management 11 (4): 283–290.Google Scholar
  31. Lamon, E. C., 1995, A regression model for the prediction of chlorophyll a in Lake Okeechobee Lake and Reservoir Management 11(4):283–290. Google Scholar
  32. Levin, S.A. 1992. The Problem of Pattern and Scale in Ecology. Ecology 73 (6): 1943–1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levine, D., C. Huntsaker, S. Timmins, and J. Beauchamp. 1993. A Geographic Information System Approach to Modeling Nutrient and Sediment Transport. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division. Pub No. 3993. Oak Ridge, TN.Google Scholar
  34. Meals, D.W. and Budd, L.F., 1998, Lake Champlain Basin nonpoint source phosphorus assessment. J. Am. Water Res. Assoc. 34(2): 251–265. Google Scholar
  35. Meyer, J., and G. Likens. 1979. Transport and Transformation of Phosphorus in a Forest Stream Ecosystem. Ecology 60 (6): 1255–1269. Google Scholar
  36. Minshall, G.W., R. Petersen, K. Cummins, T. Bott, J. Sedell, C. Cushing, and R. Vannote. 1983. Interbiome comparison of stream ecosystem dynamics. Ecological Monographs 53(1): 1–25.Google Scholar
  37. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Various years. Climatological Data. Asheville, North Carolina. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). 1994. State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base Data Use Information. Misc. pub. No. 1492. Fort Worth, Texas.Google Scholar
  38. New York City Department of Environmental Protection. 1999. Development of a water quality guidance value for Phase II Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in the New York City Reservoirs. New York City Department of Environmental Protection Report. Valhalla, NY.Google Scholar
  39. Novotny, V., and G. Chesters. 1989. Delivery of sediment and pollutants from nonpoint sources: A water quality perspective. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 44 (6): 568–576.Google Scholar
  40. Osborne, L., and M. Wiley. 1988. Empirical relationships between land use/cover and stream water quality in an agricultural watershed. Journal of Environmental Management 26: 9–27.Google Scholar
  41. Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, A.N. Sharpley, and R.R. Schnabel. 1990. Flow and nutrient export patterns for an agricultural hill-land watershed. Water Resources Research, 32: 1795–1804.Google Scholar
  42. Puckett, Larry J. 1995. Identifying the Major Sources of Nutrient Water Pollution. Environmental Science and Technology, 29: 408A - 414A.Google Scholar
  43. Reddy, K.R., R.H. Kadlec, E. Flaig, and P.M. Gale. 1999. Phosphorus Retention in Streams and Wetlands: A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 29 (1): 83–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Richards, C., L. Johnson, and G. Host. 1996. Landscape scale influences on stream habitats and biota. Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science, 53 (Suppl. 1): 295–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Robertson, Dale M. 1997. Regionalized Loads of Sediment and Phosphorous to Lakes Michigan and Superior-High Flow and Long Term Average. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 23:416–439. SAS Institute, Inc. 1988. SAS/STAT Users Guide (Release 6.03 ed.). Pp. 837–843. Cary, NC.Google Scholar
  46. Schlosser, I.J., and J.R. Karr. 1981. Water quality in agricultural watersheds: impact of riparian vegetation during base flow. Water Resources Bulletin 17 (2): 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Seymour, Susan. 1998. Streams brooks and rivers that flow over farmland properties Metadata. Cartographic Technologies, Inc., Brattleboro, VT. Google Scholar
  48. Sharpley, A. 1995. Identifying sites vulnerable to phosphorus loss in agricultural runoff. Journal of Environmental Quality 24 (5): 947–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharpley, A.N., S.C. Chapra, R. Wedepohl, J.T. Sims, T.C. Daniel, and KR. Reddy. 1994. Managing agricultural phosphorus for protection of surface waters: Issues and options. Journal of Environmental Quality 23: 437–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Alexander, R.B., 1997, Regional interpretation of water-quality monitoring data, Water Resources Res. 33: 2781–2798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thierfelder, Thomas. 1998. The morphology of landscape elements as predictors of water quality in glacial/boreal lakes. Journal of Hydrology 207: 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Troendle, C.A. 1985. Variable Source Area Models. pp. 347–407. IN Anderson, M.G. and T.P. Burt (eds.), Hydrological Forecasting., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Tufford, D., H. McKellar, and J. Hussey. 1998. In-stream nonpoint source nutrient prediction with land-use proximity and seasonality. Journal of Environmental Quality 27:100–111.Google Scholar
  54. United States Geological Survey. 1999. National Hydrography Dataset Catalog Unit (CU) Nos. 02010005, 02010003, 02010007, 02010001 and 02010002. Google Scholar
  55. Vaithiyanathan, P., and D. Correll. 1992. The Rhode River Watershed: Phosphorous Distribution and Export in Forest and Agricultural Soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 21: 280–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vermont Center for Geographic Information, Inc. 1993. RDSCLx Metadata. Burlington, Vermont. Vermont Center for Geographic Information, Inc. 1996. VSWInn Metadata. Burlington, Vermont. Vermont Center for Geographic Information, Inc. 1997A. Final Report: Development of Land Cover/Land Google Scholar
  57. Use Geographic Information System Data Layer for the Lake Champlain Basin and Vermont. Burlington, Vermont.Google Scholar
  58. Vermont Center for Geographic Information, Inc. 1997B. DEMnnnn Metadata. Burlington, Vermont. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) and New York DEC 1997. A phosphorus budget, model, and load reduction strategy for Lake Champlain: The Lake Champlain diagnostic feasibility report. Waterbury, Vermont and Albany, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Wang, D., S.N. Levine, D.W. Meals, J. Hoffman, J. Drake, and E.A. Cassell. 1999. Importance of Instream Nutrient Storage to P Export from a Rural, Eutrophic River in Vermont, USA. In Lake Champlain in Transition: From Research to Restoration (pp. 205–223). The American Geophysical Union.Google Scholar
  60. Weller, C., M. Watzin, and D. Wang. 1996. Role of Wetlands in Reducing Phosphorus Loading to Surface Water in Eight Watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin. Environmental Management, 20: 731–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wiley, M.J., K.L. Steven, and P.W. Seelbach. 1997. Reconciling landscape and local views of aquatic communities: lessons from Michigan trout streams. Freshwater Biology 37: 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang, J., T.S. Tisdale, and R.A. Wagner. 1996. A Basin Scale Phosphorus Transport Model for South Florida. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 12 (3): 321–327.Google Scholar
  63. Zollweg, J.A., W.J. Gburek, H.B. Pionke, and A.W. Sharpley. 1995. GIS-based delineation of source areas of phosphorus within agricultural watersheds of the northeastern USA. Modelling and Management of Sustainable Basin-scale Water Resource Systems (Proceedings of a Boulder Symposium, July 1995). IAHS Publ. No 231, 1995. Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Seltzer
  • Deane Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Natural ResourcesUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations