Hydrodynamics of The South Main Lake and South Lake, Lake Champlain

  • T. O. Manley
Conference paper

Abstract

Thermal data were collected in the South Lake of Lake Champlain during a period of three years, 1997–1999, from early June to late October. Water level data available for analysis were collected in 1997 and 1999 at Port Henry, NY and Whitehall, NY. Thermal observations varied from 4 to 8 sites evenly distributed along the South Lake. Both deep and surface temperatures were monitored at a nominal sampling rate of 30 minutes. Water level data are consistent at the two sites and were strongly correlated with north-south wind forcing. Surface temperatures had temporal variations ranging from diurnal to interannual. North of Five Mile Point, internal seiche dynamics of the Main Lake were observed as warm pulses of water immediately followed by a hypolimnic internal gravity current. These events are referred to as “thermal hooks” due to their unique signature when plotted. These thermal hook events, which number from 4–6 per observational period per year, were estimated to propagate rapidly past the Crown Point Bridge at maximum speeds of 42 cm/s. When entering shallower water, propagation speed drops rapidly to approximately 8 cm/s. These numbers agree well with observed propagation times from the Crown Point Bridge to Five Mile Point. Past Five Mile Point, these thermal hook pulses can no longer be accurately defined although there might be indications that they did propagate past this site. In 1997, an ADCP was placed at a depth of 6.4 m at the Crown Point Bridge for a period of 2 weeks. Results showed a very dynamic bi-directional velocity of water into and out of the South Lake along with a strong diurnal signal associated with echo intensity, which was believed to be associated with vertical migration of zooplankton or slightly larger species. During this 2-week time period, the velocity structure of a thermal hook event was documented and agreed well with expected current velocities. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses show that the South Lake does have preferred oscillations and that these are of long period (1–7 days) and driven by the atmosphere. Data from the met station at the International Paper Company

Keywords

Spectral Peak Gravity Current Thermal Signature Main Lake Deep Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. O. Manley
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Geology, Bicentennial HallMiddlebury CollegeMiddleburyUSA

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