Lakebed Pockmarks in Burlington Bay, Lake Champlain: I. Hydrodynamics and Implications of Origin

  • Patricia L. Manley
  • T. O. Manley
  • Mary C. Watzin
  • Josh Gutierrez
Conference paper


Using side-scan sonar and sub-bottom profiles, a 40 m diameter, ~4 m deep lakebed pockmark was investigated in Burlington Bay, Lake Champlain, Vermont. Five piston cores (2 inside, 1 on the rim and 2 outside of the pockmark) were collected and analyzed for magnetic susceptibility, physical properties and 210Pb and 132Cs concentrations. A yearlong subsurface mooring, equipped with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and vertical temperature chain, was placed in the deepest section of the pockmark (27.7 m). A second temperature chain was placed along the pockmark floor and over its rim. At the base of the mooring, 35 mm stereo cameras and a Savonius rotor current meter ~ 0.3 m above the lake floor) were installed. Bottom photographs show episodic events of suspended sediment. Temperature data show the presence of anomalously cold temperature water near the rim of the pockmark during stratified periods and anomalously warmer water temperatures during isothermal winter type conditions. Coarser grain size and bulk density occur inside the pockmark with an associated decrease in water content in comparison to sediment outside the pockmark. Radionuclide results show no detectable net accumulation of sediment within the rim of the pockmark, slight accumulation in the deepest part of the pockmark, and only a few tenths of a mm/yr accumulation outside. This pockmark was most likely formed by groundwater seepage and is subsequently modified by continuing groundwater seepage and bottom-flowing currents. Taylor column and frictional boundary layer dynamics are believed to play a role in the circulation within this feature.


Potential Vorticity Acoustic Doppler Current Proftier Dust Devil Piston Core Groundwater Seepage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia L. Manley
    • 1
  • T. O. Manley
    • 1
  • Mary C. Watzin
    • 2
  • Josh Gutierrez
    • 1
  1. 1.Geology DepartmentMiddlebury CollegeMiddleburyUSA
  2. 2.Rubenstein Ecosystem Science Laboratory, School of Natural ResourcesUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

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