Exploring the Fourth Amendment: Searches Based on Consent



Majoritarian or consensus theories of judicial review argue that some consideration should be accorded by courts to community views and social perceptions (Sadurski, 1987). And indeed, the courts have accorded a role to social perceptions and attitudes in their reviews of constitutional issues. “Contemporary community standards” have been considered in judicial reviews concerning First Amendment freedom of expression and standards of obscenity (Marks v. United States, 1977; Smith v. United States, 1977).


Police Officer Judicial Review Social Perception Fourth Amendment Applied Social Psychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allee v. Medrano, 416 U.S. 802 (1974).Google Scholar
  2. Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  3. Altman, I., & Chemers, M.M. (1980). Culture and environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  4. Altman, I., Nelson, P.A., & Lett, E.E. (1975). The ecology of home environments. J SAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  5. Altman, I., & Taylor, D.A. (1973). Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  6. Altman, I., Taylor, D.A., & Wheeler, L. (1971). Ecological aspects of group behavior in social isolation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7, 76–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altman, I., Vinsel, A., & Brown, B.B. (1981). Dialectic conceptions in social psychology: An application to social penetration and privacy regulation. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 107–160). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Altman, I., & Werner, CM. (Eds.) (1985). Home environments. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ballew v. Georgia, 435 U.S. 223 (1978).Google Scholar
  10. Bell, R.R. (1981). Worlds of friendship. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 403 U.S. 388 (1971).Google Scholar
  12. Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism. Engle-wood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Bradbury, T.N., & Fincham, F.D. (1989). Behavior and satisfaction in marriage: Prospective mediating processes. In C. Hendrick (Ed.), Close relationships (pp. 119–143). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Bretti v. Wainwright, 439 F.2d 1042 (5th Cir. 1971).Google Scholar
  15. Brigham, T.A. (1979). Some effects of choice on academic performance. In L.C. Perlmuter & R.A. Monty (Eds.), Choice and perceived control (pp. 131–141). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbuam.Google Scholar
  16. Buck, R. (1989). Emotional communication in personal relationships: A developmental-inter-actionistview. In C. Hendrick (Ed.), Close relationships (pp. 144–163). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Bumper v. North Carolina, 391 U.S. 543 (1968).Google Scholar
  18. Butler v. Commonwealth, 536 S.W.2d 139 (Sup. Ct. Ky. 1976).Google Scholar
  19. Camara v. Municipal Court, 387 U.S. 523 (1967).Google Scholar
  20. Chimel v. California, 395 U.S. 752 (1969).Google Scholar
  21. Clark, H.H., & Lucy, P. (1975). Understanding what is meant from what is said: A study in conversationally conveyed requests. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 56–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Comment (1973). Relevance of the absent party’s whereabouts in third party consent searches. Boston University Law Review, 53, 1087–1121.Google Scholar
  23. Connally v. Georgia, 429 U.S. 245 (1977).Google Scholar
  24. Coolidge v. New Hampshire, 403 U.S. 443 (1971).Google Scholar
  25. Dorsey v. State, 232 A.2d 900 (Md. App. 1967).Google Scholar
  26. Fitzpatrick, M. A. (1984). A typological approach to marital interaction: Recent theory and research. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 18, pp. 1–47). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).Google Scholar
  28. Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972).Google Scholar
  29. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  30. Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976).Google Scholar
  31. Hamilton v. North Carolina, 260 F. Supp. 632 (E.D.N.C. 1966).Google Scholar
  32. Harris, D.M., & Guten, S. (1979). Health protective behavior: An exploratory study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 20, 17–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harris, B., & Harvey, J.H. (1975). Self-attributed choice as a function of the consequence of a decision. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 1013–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harvey, J.H., & Harris, B. (1975). Determinants of perceived choice and the relationship between perceived choice and the expectancy about feelings of internal control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harvey, J.H., Harris, B., & Barnes, R.D. (1975). Actor-observer differences in the perceptions of responsibility and freedom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 22–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harvey, J.H., & Jellison, J.M. (1974). Determinants of perceived choice: Number of options and perceived time in making a selection. Memory and Cognition, 2, 539–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harvey, J.H., & Johnston, S. (1973). Determinants of the perception of choice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 164–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hatfield, E., & Traupmann, J. (1981). Intimate relationships: A perspective from equity theory. In S. Duck & R. Gilmour (Eds.), Personal relationships: 1. Studying personal relationships (pp. 165–178). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hays, R.B. (1985). A longitudinal study of friendship development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 909–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hays, R.B. (1989). The day-to-day functioning of close versus casual friendships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 6, 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holmes, J.G., & Rempel, J.K. (1989). Trust in close relationships. In C. Hendrick (Ed.), Close relationships (pp. 187–220). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Hornstein, G.A. (1985). Intimacy in conversational style as a function of the degree of closeness between members of a dyad. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 671–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Illinois v. Andreas, 463 U.S. 765 (1983).Google Scholar
  44. Illinois v. Rodriguez, 58 U.S.L.W. 4892 (1990).Google Scholar
  45. In re Michael V., 517 P.2d 1145 (1974).Google Scholar
  46. Jellison, J.M., & Harvey, J.H. (1973). Determinants of perceived choice and the relationship between perceived choice and perceived competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 376–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10 (1948).Google Scholar
  48. Jones, E.E., & Nisbett, R.E. (1972). The actor and the observer: Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. In E.E. Jones, D.E. Kanouse, H.H. Kelley, R.E. Nisbett, S. Valins, & B. Weiner (Eds.), Attributions: Perceiving the causes of behavior (pp. 79–94). Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  49. Kagehiro, D.K. (1988). Perceived voluntariness of consent to warrantless police searches. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kagehiro, D.K. (1990). Psycholegal research on the Fourth Amendment. Psychological Science, 1, 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kagehiro, D.K., & Laufer, W.S. (1990). The assumption of risk doctrine and third-party consent searches. Criminal Law Bulletin, 26, 195–209.Google Scholar
  52. Kagehiro, D.K., & Taylor, R.B. (1988). Third-party consent searches: Legal vs. social perceptions of “common authority.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1274–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kagehiro, D.K., Laufer, W.S., & Taylor, R.B. (1990). Social perceptions of third-party consent and the reasonableness test of Illinois v. Rodriguez. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  54. Kagehiro, D.K., Taylor, R.B., & Harland, A.T. (1991). “Reasonable expectation of privacy” and third-party consent searches. Law and Human Behavior, 15, 121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967).Google Scholar
  56. Kelley, H.H. (1979). Personal relationships: Their structures and processes. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Kelley, H.H., & Thibaut, J.W. (1978). Interpersonal relations: A theory of interdependence. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  58. Kreckel, M. (1981). Communicative acts and shared knowledge in natural discourse. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  59. Lankford v. Gelston, 364 F.2d 197 (4th Cir. 1966).Google Scholar
  60. Lockhart v. McCree, 476 U.S. 162 (1986).Google Scholar
  61. Marks v. United States, 430 U.S. 188 (1977).Google Scholar
  62. McAdams, D.P., Healy, S., & Krause, S. (1984). Social motives and patterns of friendship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 828–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McCleskey v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279 (1987).Google Scholar
  64. Mercer, W., & Benjamin, M.L. (1980). Spatial behavior of university undergraduates in double-occupancy residence rooms: An inventory of effects. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 32–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Michigan Department of State Police v. Sitz, 1990 U.S. LEXIS 3144 (1990).Google Scholar
  66. Monson, T.C., & Snyder, M. (1977). Actors, observers, and the attribution process. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 89–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Munro, A. (1979). Indirect speech acts are not strictly conventional. Linguistic Inquiry, 10, 353–356.Google Scholar
  68. Note (1981). Arrests on third party premises: Reasonableness under the Fourth Amendment. American Criminal Law Review, 18, 449–468.Google Scholar
  69. People v. Cosme, 422 N.Y.S.2d 652, 397 N.E.2d 1319 (1979).Google Scholar
  70. People v. Misquez, 313 P.2d 206 (Cal. Ct. App. 1957).Google Scholar
  71. People v. Mortimer, 361 N.Y.S.2d 955, 46 A.D.2d 275 (1974).Google Scholar
  72. People v. Reynolds, 127 Cal. Rptr, 561 (Cal. Ct. App. 1976.Google Scholar
  73. People v. Stout, 57 Cal. Rptr. 152, 424 P.2d 704 (1967).Google Scholar
  74. Prager, K.J. (1986). Intimacy status: Its relationship to locus of control, self-disclosure, and anxiety in adults. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rakas v. Illinois, 439 U.S. 128 (1978).Google Scholar
  76. Rapoport, A. (1982). The meaning of the builtenvironment: A nonverbal communicationapproach. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  77. Rempel, J.K., Holmes, J.G., & Zanna, M.P. (1985). Trust in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ringel, W.E. (1989). Searches and seizures, arrests and confessions (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Clark Boardman. Rizzo v. Goode, 423 U.S. 362 (1976).Google Scholar
  79. Robertson, L.S. (1977). Car crashes: Perceived vulnerability and willingness to pay for crash protection. Journal of Community Health, 3, 136— 141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Robinson v. California, 370 U.S. 660 (1962).Google Scholar
  81. Rosenblatt, P.C., & Budd, L.G. (1975). Territoriality and privacy in married and unmarried cohabiting couples. Journal of Social Psychology, 97, 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sadock, J.M. (1974). Toward a linguistic theory ofspeech acts. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  83. Sadurski, W. (1987). Conventional morality and judicial standards. Virginia Law Review, 73, 339– 397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sandman, P.M., Weinstein, N.D., & Klotz, M.L. (1987). Public response to the risk from geological radon. Journal of Communication, 37, 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schellen, A.E. (1971). Living space in an urban ghetto. Family Process, 10, 429–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schneckloth v. Bustamonte, 412 U.S. 218 (1973).Google Scholar
  87. Searle, J.R. (1979). Expression and meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sebba, R., & Churchman, A. (1983). Territories and territoriality in the home. Environment and Behavior, 15, 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. See v. City of Seattle, 387 U.S. 541 (1967).Google Scholar
  90. Segura v. United States, 468 U.S. 796 (1984).Google Scholar
  91. Silva v. State, 344 So.2d 559 (Fla. 1977).Google Scholar
  92. Slovic, P. (1978). The psychology of protective behavior. Journal of Safety Research, 10, 58–68.Google Scholar
  93. Slovic, P. (1986). Informing and educating the public about risk. Risk Analysis, 6, 403–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., & Lichtenstein, S. (1978). Accident probabilities and seat belt usage: A psychological perspective. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 10, 281–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith v. United States, 431 U.S. 291 (1977).Google Scholar
  96. Solem v. Helm, 463 U.S. 277 (1983).Google Scholar
  97. Stanford v. Kentucky, 57 U.S.L.W. 4973 (1989).Google Scholar
  98. State v. Evans, 45 Haw. 622, 372 P.2d 365 (1962).Google Scholar
  99. State v. Sorenson, 590 P.2d 136 (Sup. Ct. Mont. 1979).Google Scholar
  100. Svenson, O. (1978). Risks of road transportation in a psychological perspective. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 10, 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Taylor, R.B. (1988). Human territorial functioning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Taylor, R.B., & Kagehiro, D.K. (1988, August). An empirical look at “assumption of risk” in consent searches. In D.K. Kagehiro (Chair), Psycholegal perspectives on privacy. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  103. Taylor, R.B., & Stough, R.R. (1978). Territorial cognitions: Assessing Altman’s typology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 418– 423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968).Google Scholar
  105. Tison v. Arizona, 481 U.S. 137 (1987).Google Scholar
  106. Trop v. Dulles, 356 U.S. 86 (1958).Google Scholar
  107. United States ex rel. Gockley v. Myers, 378 F.2d 398 (3rd Cir. 1967).Google Scholar
  108. United States v. Bily, 406 F.Supp. 726 (E.D.Pa. 1975).Google Scholar
  109. United States v. Block, 590 F.2d 535 (4th Cir. 1978).Google Scholar
  110. United States v. Blue, 384 U.S. 251 (1966).Google Scholar
  111. United States v. Boukater, 409 F.2d 537 (5th Cir. 1969).Google Scholar
  112. United States v. Buettner-Janusch, 646 F.2d 759 (2d Cir.), cert, denied, 454 U.S. 830 (1981).Google Scholar
  113. United States v. Bussey, 507 F.2d 1096 (9th Cir. 1974).Google Scholar
  114. United States v. Crews, 445 U.S. 463 (1980).Google Scholar
  115. United States v. Jacobsen, 466 U.S. 109 (1984).Google Scholar
  116. United States v. Juarez, 573 F.2d 267 (5th Cir. 1978).Google Scholar
  117. United States v. Kinney, 638 F.2d 941 (6th Cir. 1981).Google Scholar
  118. United States v. Koehler, 790 F.2d 1256 (5th Cir. 1986).Google Scholar
  119. United States v. Lyons, 706 F.2d 321 (D.C. Cir. 1983).Google Scholar
  120. United States v. Mankani, 738 F.2d 538 (2d Cir. 1984).Google Scholar
  121. United States v. Matlock, 415 U.S. 164 (1974).Google Scholar
  122. United States v. Poole, 307 F. Supp. 1185 (E.D.La. 1969).Google Scholar
  123. United States v. Robinson, 414 U.S. 218 (1973).Google Scholar
  124. United States v. Ruiz-Estrella, 481 F.2d 723 (2d Cir. 1973).Google Scholar
  125. United States v. Seely, 570 F.2d 322 (10th Cir. 1978).Google Scholar
  126. United States v. Stone, 471 F.2d 170 (7th Cir. 1972).Google Scholar
  127. United States v. Sumiin, 567 F.2d 684 (6th Cir. 1977), cert, denied, 435 U.S. 932 (1978).Google Scholar
  128. United States v. Venema, 563 F.2d 1003 (10th Cir. 1977).Google Scholar
  129. United States v. White, 401 U.S. 745 (1971).Google Scholar
  130. United States v. White, 706 F.2d 806 (7th Cir. 1983).Google Scholar
  131. Van Duizend, R., Sutton, L.P., & Carter, C.A. (1985). The search warrant process: Preconceptions, perceptions, practices. Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State Courts.Google Scholar
  132. Vaughan, D. (1987). Uncoupling: Turning points in intimate relationships. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Walster, E., Walster, G.W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity: Theory and research. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  134. Walter v. United States, 447 U.S. 649 (1980).Google Scholar
  135. Warden v. Hayden, 387 U.S. 294 (1967).Google Scholar
  136. Warner, R.E. (1979). Governmental deception in consent searches. University of Miami Law Review, 34, 57–98.Google Scholar
  137. Weems v. United States, 217 U.S. 349 (1910).Google Scholar
  138. Wefing, J.B., & Miles, J.G. (1974). Consent searches and the Fourth Amendment: Voluntariness and third party problems. Seton Hall Law Review, 5, 211–283.Google Scholar
  139. Weinreb, L.L. (1974). Generalities of the Fourth Amendment. University of Chicago Law Review, 42, 47–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Weinstein, N.D. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Weinstein, N.D. (1984). Why it won’t happen to me: Perceptions of risk factors and susceptibility. Health Psychology, I, 431–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Werner, CM., Altman, L, & Oxley, D. (1985). Temporal aspects of homes: A transactional perspective. In I. Altman & CM. Werner (Eds.), Home environments (pp. 1–32). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  143. Zürcher v. Stanford Daily, 436 U.S. 547 (1978).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations