Licensure of Functions

  • Leonore Simon
  • Bruce Sales
  • Lee Sechrest


Regulation and licensing of various disciplines and professions is pervasive in our country today. By one estimate, at least 5, 000 different licenses have been granted to more than 500 occupations (United States Department of Labor [USDOL], 1969, cited in Hogan, 1983). With so many different groups being licensed in one state or another, licensing laws affect a substantial portion of the work force (USDOL, 1969, cited in Hogan, 1983), warranting the raising of questions about the effectiveness of such regulatory activity and its underlying schema in satisfying the purposes of licensure.


Nurse Practitioner Physician Assistant Negative Side Effect Police Power American Dietetic Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aiken, L.S., & LoSciuto, L.A. (1985). Ex-addict versus non-addict counselors’ knowledge of clients’ drug use. The International journal of the Addictions, 20(3), 417–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiken, L.S., LoSciuto, L.A., & Ausetts, M.A. (1984). Paraprofessional versus professional drug counselors: Diverse routes to the same role. The International Journal of the Addictions, 79(2), 153–173.Google Scholar
  3. Albee, G.W. (1959). Mental health manpower trends. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Albo, D., Jr., Taylor, C.W., & Page, B. (1982). Evaluating performances of resident physicians against the target of excellent physicians in practice. In J.S. Lloyd (Ed.), Evaluation of non-cognitive skills and clinical performance (pp. 113–125). Chicago: American Board of Medical Specialties.Google Scholar
  5. Albo, D., Jr., Taylor, C.W., Page, B., Chang, F.C., & Moody, F.G. (1976). Multifactor evaluations of surgical trainees and teaching services. Surgery, 80(1), 115–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alspach, J. (1984). Designing a competency-based orientation for critical care nurses. Heart Lung, 13, 655–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. American Association of State Psychology Boards (1977). AASPB training guidelines. Montgomery, A.I.: Author.Google Scholar
  8. American Bar Association, Special Committee on Evaluation of Disciplinary Enforcement. (1970). Problems and recommendations in disciplinary enforcement. Chicago: American Bar Association.Google Scholar
  9. American Dietetic Association Professional Standards Review Committee. (1975). Guidelines for evaluating dietetic practice. Chicago: American Dietetic Association.Google Scholar
  10. American Institutes for Research. (1976). The definition of clinical competence in medicine: Performance dimensions and rationales for clinical skill areas. Philadelphia: National Board of Medical Examiners.Google Scholar
  11. American Medical Association, Center for Health Services Research and Development. (1977). Physician distribution and medical licensure in the U.S. Chicago: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
  12. American Medical Association, Council on Health Manpower. (1972). Health manpower progress report 1972. (Adopted by AM A House of Delegates.) Chicago: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
  13. American Medical Association, Council on Medical Education and Council on Health Manpower. (1971). Physician manpower and medical education, a report. Chicago: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
  14. American Psychological Association. (1982). Report of the task force on the evaluation of education, training, and service in psychology. Washington DC: Author.Google Scholar
  15. American Psychological Association (1967). Model for state legislation. American Psychologist, 22, 1095–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Andrew, B.J. (1972). An approach to the construction of simulated exercise and clinical problem solving. Journal of Medical Education, 47, 952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Appeal of Icardi, 436 Pa. 364, 260 A.2d 282 (1970).Google Scholar
  18. Application of Faylona, 354 So.2d 1347 (La. 1978).Google Scholar
  19. Application of Kellar, 81 Nev. 240, 401 P.2d 616 (1965).Google Scholar
  20. Aring, C. (1976). Whither the specialty boards? Journal of the American Medical Association, 235, 1849–1850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., 429 U.S. 252 (1977).Google Scholar
  22. Balacki, M.F. (1988). A competency-based tool for the clinical orientation and evaluation of psychiatric nurses. Journal of New York State Nurses Association, 19(1), 11–21.Google Scholar
  23. Barry v. Barchi, 443 U.S. 55 (1979).Google Scholar
  24. Bell, C.G. (1976). Role vs. entry-level competencybased education. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 69, 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Benham, L. (1972). The effect of advertising on the price of eyeglasses. Journal of Law and Economics, 15, 337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Berg, I. (1970). Education and jobs: The great training robbery. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  27. Berman, J.S., & Norton, N.C. (1985). Does professional training make a therapist more effective? Psychological Bulletin, 98, 401–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Beutler, L.E., Crago, M., & Arizmendi, T.G. (1986). Therapist variables in psychotherapy process and outcome. In A.E. Bergin & S.L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 257–310). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Bieliauskas, L.A., & Mathews, C.G. (1987). American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology: Policies and procedures. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1, 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bilbrey v. Industrial Commission, 27 Ariz. App. 473, 556 P.2d. 27 (1976).Google Scholar
  31. Bond, R.S., Kwoka, J.E., Jr., Phelan, J.J., & Taylor, I. (1983). Self-regulation in optometry: The impact on price and quality. Law and Human Behavior, 7(2/3), 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Boneau, C.A., & Cuca, J.M. (1974). An overview of psychology’s human resources. American Psychologist, 29, 821–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bootzin, R.R. (1985). The role of expectancy in behavior change. In L. White, G. Schwartz, & B. Tursky (Eds.), Placebo: Clinical phenomena and new insights pp. 196–210. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  34. Broodie, B., & Bancroft, B. (1982). A comparison of nurse practitioner and physician costs in a military out-patient facility. Military Medicine, 147, 1051–1053.Google Scholar
  35. Burt, F.D., Lloyd, J.S., & Templeton, B. (1982). Competence in medicine. Medical Teacher, 4, 60–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. California Reduction Co. v. Sanitary Reduction Workers, 199 U.S. 306, 26 S.Ct. 100, 50 L.E. 204 (1905).Google Scholar
  37. Canfield, A. (1981). Clinical competencies for critical care nurses. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 3, 272–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Canfield, A. (1982). Controversy over clinical competencies. Heart Lung, 11, 197–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Carkhuff, R.R., & Truax, C.B. (1969). Lay mental health counseling: The effects of lay group counseling. In B.G. Guerney, Jr. (Ed.), Psychotherapeutic agents: Roles for non-professionals, parents, and teachers. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. (Original work published 1965)Google Scholar
  40. Carlin, J.E. (1966). Lawyer’s ethics: A survey of the New York City Bar. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  41. Carlson, R.J. (1970). Health manpower licensing and the emerging institutional responsibility for quality of care. Law and Contemporary Problems, 35, 849–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Carlson, R.J. (1975). The end of medicine. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  43. Carroll v. State, 355 So.2d 495 (Fla. App. 1978).Google Scholar
  44. Carr-Saunders, A.M., & Wilson, P.A. (1964). The professions. London: Cass. (Original work published 1933)Google Scholar
  45. Chodoff, P. (1987). Effects of the new economic climate on psychotherapeutic practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1293–1297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Citizen’s Commission on Graduate Medical Education. (1966). The graduate education of physicians. Chicago: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
  47. Cochran, S.B., & Spears, M.C. (1980). Student self-assessment and instructors’ ratings: A comparison. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 76, 253–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Colliver, J.A., Havens, R.A., & Wesley, R.M. (1985). Doctors and masters level clinical psychologists and MSW’s in the public mental health settings: A nationwide follow-up. Professional Psychology Research Practice, 16, 634–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Congressional Budget Office. (1979). Physician extenders: Their current and future role in medical care delivery. Washington, DC: GPO.Google Scholar
  50. Corcoran, K.J. (1985). Unraveling subjects’ perceptions of paraprofessionals and professionals: A pilot study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 60, 111–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Corrigan, J.D., Dell, D.M., Lewis, K.N., & Schmidt, L.D. (1980). Counseling as a social influence process: A review. Journal of Counseling Psychology Monograph, 27, 395–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Coulehan, J.L., Schulberg, H.C., Block, M.R., & Zetter-Segal, M. (1988). Symptom patterns of depression in ambulatory medical and psychiatric patients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176 (5), 284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cowen, E.L. (1982). Help is where you find it: Four informal helping groups. American Psychologist, 37, 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Crouch, M., Sallis, J.F., Farguhar, J.W., Haskell, W.L., Ellsworth, N.M., King, A.B., & Rogers, T. (1986). Personal and mediated health counseling for sustained dietary reduction of hypercholesterolemia. Preventive Medicine, 15, 282–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. DeMots, H., Coombs, B., Murphy, E., & Palac, R. (1987). Coronary arteriography performed by a physician assistant. The American Journal of Cardiology, 60, 784–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (1977). Health Resources Administration, National Center for Health Services Research. Nurse practitioners and physicians’ assistants training and deployment study. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  57. Derbyshire, R.C. (1969). Medical licensure and discipline in the United States. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  58. Derbyshire, R.C. (1983). How effective is medical self-regulation? Law and Human Behavior, 7, 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. DiMauro v. Board of Medical Examiners, 769 P.2d 759 (Okl. 1989).Google Scholar
  60. Ditullio v. State Board of Examiners, 373 A.2d 757 (Me. 1978).Google Scholar
  61. Dolan, A.K., & Urban, N.D. (1983). Law and Human Behavior, 7(2/3), 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dorken, H. (1986). The expanding role of clinical psychology in mental health services: The CHAMPUS experience. In Professional psychology in transition (pp. 20–43). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  63. Dornette, W.H.L. (1976). Role of the healing arts licensing board in the current medical malpractice crisis. Journal of Legal Medicine, 4(3), 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Due process limitations on occupational licensing. (1973). Virginia Law Review, 59, 1097–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Durlak, J.A. (1979). Comparative effectiveness of paraprofessional and professional helpers. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 80–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ellsworth, N.M., King, A.B., & Rogers, T. (1986). Personal and mediated health counseling for sustained dietary reduction of hypercholesterolemia. Preventive Medicine, 15, 282–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Engel, W., Freund, D.A., Stein, J.S., & Fletcher, R.H., (1989). The treatment of patients with asthma by specialists and generalists. Medical Care, 27, 306–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Feeney, J., & Benson-Landau, 1987. Competency-based evaluation: Not just for new nurses. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 6(6), 368–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Feldstein, P. (1977). Health associations and the demand for legislation. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  70. Fenton, M.V. (1985). Identifying competencies of clinical nurse specialists. Journal of Nursing Administration, 75(12), 31–37.Google Scholar
  71. Fiske, D. (1977). Methodological issues in research on the psychotherapist. In A.S. Gurman & A.M. Razin (Eds.), Effective psychotherapy. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  72. Forgotson, E.H., & Cook, J.L. (1967). Innovations and experiments in the use of health manpower— the effect of licensure laws. Law and Contemporary Problems, 2, 731–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Frank, J.D. (1973). Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy (rev. ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Frank, R.G. (1982). “Freedom of choice” laws: empirical evidence of their contribution to competition in mental health care delivery. Health Policy Quarterly, 2, 79–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Freedman, M.A., Jillson, D.A., Coffin, R.R., & Novick, L.F. (1986). Comparison of complication rates in first trimester abortions performed by physician assistants and physicians. American Journal of Public Health, 76(5), 550–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fretz, B.R., & Mills, D.H. (1980). Licensing and certification of psychologists and counselors. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  77. Friedman v. Supreme Court of Virginia, 822 F.2d 423 (4th Cir. 1987).Google Scholar
  78. Fullerton, J.T., Greener, D.L., & Gross, L.J. (1989). Criterion-referenced competency assessment and the national certification examination in nurse-midwifery. Journal of Nur se-Midwifery, 34(2), 71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Garfield, S.L. (1982). Eclecticism and integration in psychotherapy. Behavior Therapy, 13, 610–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Garfield, S., & Bergin, A. (1971). Therapeutic conditions and outcome. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 108–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gellhorn, W. (1956). Individual freedom and governmental restraints. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Gibson v. Berryhill, 411 U.S. 564 (1973).Google Scholar
  83. Goldberg, G.A., Jolly, D.M., Hosek, S., & Chu, S.C. (1981). Physician extenders performance in airforce clinics. Medical Care, 19(9), 951–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Goldstein, A.P., Heller, K., & Sechrest, L.B. (1966). Psychotherapy and the psychology of behavior change. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  85. Gomes-Schwartz, B., & Schwartz, J.M. (1978). Psychotherapy process variables distinguishing the “inherently helpful” person from the professional psychotherapist. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 196–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gordon v. Committee on Character and Fitness, 48 N.Y.2d 266, 422 N.Y.S.2d 641, 397 N.E.2d 1309 (1979).Google Scholar
  87. Graduate Medical Education Advisory Committee, (1981). Report to the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services (HRA Pub. No. 82–617).Google Scholar
  88. Greenwald, J.P., Peterson, M., Garrison, L.P., et al. (1984). Interspecialty variation in office-based care. Medical Care, 22, 14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Guest, P.D., & Beutler, L.E. (1988). Impact of psychotherapy supervision on therapist orientation and values. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(5), 653–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hagerty, B.K. (1986). A competency-based orientation program for psychiatric nursing. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 17, 157–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hattie, J.A., Sharpley, C.F., & Rogers, H.J. (1984). Comparative effectiveness of professional and paraprofessional helpers. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 534–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Heath, D.H. (1977). Maturity and competence: A transcultural view. New York: Garner.Google Scholar
  93. Henry, W.E., Sims, J.H., & Spray, S.L. (1971). The fifth profession: Becoming a psychotherapist. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  94. Henry, W.E., Sims, J.H., & Spray, S.L. (1973). Public and private lives of psychotherapists. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  95. Heppner, P.P., & Dixon, D.N. (1981). A review of the interpersonal influence process in counseling. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 59, 542–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Herbsieb, J.D., Sales, B.D., & Overcast, T.D. (1985). Challenging licensure and certification. American Psychologist, 40(11), 1165–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hereford v. Farrar, 469 S.W. 2d 16 (Tex. Civ. App. 1971).Google Scholar
  98. Hess, A.K., & Hess, K.A. (1983). Psychotherapy supervision: A survey of internship training practices. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14, 504–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hillard, P.J., & Fang, W.L. (1986). Medical Students’ gynecologic examination skills: Evaluation by gynecology teaching associates. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 31, 491–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hillman, B.J., Fajardo, L.L., Hunter, T.B., Mockbee, B., Cook, C.E., Hagaman, R.M., Bjelland, J.C., Frey, C.S., and Harris, C.J. (1987). Mammogram interpretation by physician assistants. American Journal of Radiology, 149, 907–911.Google Scholar
  101. Hogan, D.B. (1979). The regulation of psychotherapists: Vol. 1. A study in the philosophy and practice of professional regulation. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  102. Hogan, D.B. (1983). The effectiveness of licensing: History, evidence, and recommendations. Law and Human Behavior, 7(2/3), 117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Holt, R.R. (1971). (ED). New horizons for psychotherapy: Autonomy as a profession. New York: International Universities Press. In re Griffiths, 413 U.S. 717 (1973).Google Scholar
  104. Jenkins, J., & Turk, V. (1983). Mental health manpower. In Mental health, United States 1983 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Pub. No. [ADM] 83–1275). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, Division of Biometry and Epidemiology.Google Scholar
  105. Jervey, H.E., Jr. (1961). A survey of medical discipline. Federal Bulletin, 48, 83–95.Google Scholar
  106. Johnson, C.A., & Hurley, R.S. (1976). Design and use of an instrument to evaluate students’ clinical performance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 68, 450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Jones, N.F. (1975). Continuing education: A new challenge for psychology. American Psychologist, 30, 842–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Karon, B.P., & VandenBos, G.R. (1976). Cost/ benefit analysis: Psychologist versus psychiatrist for schizophrenics. Professional Psychology, 11, 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kazdin, A.E. (1979). Nonspecific treatment factors in psychotherapy outcome research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 846–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kazdin, A.E., & Wilson, G.T. (1978). Evaluation of behavior therapy: Issues, evidence, and research strategies. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  111. Kessel, R. (1970). The A.M.A. and the supply of physicians. Law and Contemporary Problems, 35, 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kitson, A. (1986, August). The methods of measuring quality. Nursing Times, pp. 32–34.Google Scholar
  113. Klevans, D.R., & Voltz, H. (1974). Development of clinical evaluation procedure American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 16, 489–491.Google Scholar
  114. Knesper, D.J., Belcher, B.E., & Cross, J.G. (1987). Preliminary production functions describing change in mental health status. Medical Care, 25, 222–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Knesper, D.J., Belcher, B.E., & Cross, J.G. (1989). A market analysis comparing the practices of psychiatrists and psychologgists. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 305–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Knesper, D.J., & Pagnucco, D.J. (1987). Estimated distribution of effort by providers of mental health services to U.S. adults in 1982 and 1983. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 883–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Knesper, D.J., Pagnucco, D.J., & Kalter, N.M. (1986). Agreement on patient diagnosis, treatment, and referral across provider groups. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 17, 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Knesper, D.J., Pagnuco, D.J., Wheeler, J.R.C. (1985). Similarities and differences across mental health services providers and practice settings in the United States. American Psychologist, 40, 1352–1368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Knesper, D.J., Wheeler, J.R.C., Pagnucco, D.J. (1984). Mental health services providers’ distribution across counties in the United States. American Psychologist, 39, 1424–1434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kreft, K.M., & Brittain, T.H. (1983). A prisoner assessment survey: Screenings of a municipal prison population. Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 6, 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lafferty, P., Beutler, L.E., & Crago, M. (1989). Differences between more and less effective psychotherapists: A study of select therapist variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(1), 76–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lave, J.R., & Lave, L.B. (1970). Medical care and its delievery: An econimic appraisal. Law and Contemporary Problems, 35, 252–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Leroy, L. (1981). The costs and effectiveness of nurse practitioners. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Case study #16. Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment.Google Scholar
  124. Lieberman, J.K. (1970). The tyranny of the experts: How professionals are closing the open society. New York: Walker.Google Scholar
  125. Lieberman, J.K. (1978). Crisis at the bar: Lawyers’ unethical ethics and what to do about it. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  126. Light, D., Jr. (1975). The impact of medical school on future psychiatrists. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 607–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Lipp, M.R. (1976). Experiences of psychiatry board exam casualties. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 279–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. LoSciuto, L., Aiken, L.S., & Ausetts, M.A. (1984). Paraprofessional versus professional drug abuse counselors: Attitudes and expectations of the counselors and their clients. The International Journal of the Addictions, 19(3), 233–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lougeay-Mottinger, J., Harris, M.R., Perlstein-Kaplan, K.E., & Felicetti, T. (1984, November). UTD competency based evaluation system. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 39–43.Google Scholar
  130. Luborsky, L., Singer, B., & Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: Is it true that “everyone has won and all must have prizes”? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. McCleery, R.S., Keelty, L.T., Lam, M., Phillips, R.E., & Quirin, T.M. (1971). One life—One physician: An inquiry into the medical profession’sperformance in self-regulation. (A report to the Center for Study of Responsive Law). Washington DC: Public Affairs Press.Google Scholar
  132. McClellan, W.M., & Craxton, L.C. (1985). Improved follow-up care of hypertensive patients by a nurse practitioner in a rural clinic. The Journal of Rural Health, 7(2), 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. McClelland, D.C. (1973). American Psychologist, 28, 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. McDonald, D. (Ed.) (1971). Medical malpractice: A discussion of alternative compensation and quality control systems. Santa Barbara, CA: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions.Google Scholar
  135. McDowell, B.J., Martin, D.C., Snustad, D.G., & Flynn, W. (1986). Comparison of the clinical practice of a geriatric nurse practitioner and two internists. Public Health Nursing, 3(3), 140–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. McGuire, C. (1969). Evaluation of certification examination. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Scientific Assembly of the College of Family Physicians of Canada.Google Scholar
  137. McGuire, T.G. (1981). Financing and demand for mental health services. Journal of Human Resources, 16 (4), 502–522.Google Scholar
  138. Mclntyre, E. (1982). Clinical evaluation of a new critical care nurse. Focus on Critical Care, 9(5), 3–6.Google Scholar
  139. Mendenhall, R.C., Moynihan, C.J., & Radecki, S.E. (1984). The relative complexity of primary care provided by medical specialists. Medical Care, 22, 987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Merrow, J.G., II. (1975). The politics of competence: A review of competency-based teacher education. (Report from the Basic Skills Program on Teaching.) Washington DC: National Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  141. Morra v. State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, 212 Kan. 103, 510 P.2d 614 (1973).Google Scholar
  142. Morris, R.C. (1971). Lawsuits and quality of patient care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 215, 1211–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Nader, R., & Green, M. (1976). Verdicts on lawyers. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.Google Scholar
  144. National Manpower Council. (1957). Womanpower. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Norcini, J.J., Swanson, D.B., & Gross, L.J., and Webster, G.D. (1985). Reliability, validity, and efficiency of multiple choice questions and patient management problem item formats in assessment of clinical competence. Medical Education, 19, 238–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Oliver v. Commonwealth, 404 A.2d. 1386, Pa. (1979).Google Scholar
  147. Olson C.D., & Mann, M.P. (1987). Competency-based evaluation in a clinical practices course for first year osteopathic medical students. Journal of American Osteophathic Association, 87(3), 258–262.Google Scholar
  148. Oratio, A.R. (1977). Supervision in speech pathology: Handbook for supervisors and clinicians. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  149. Packer v. Board of Medical Examiners, 37 Cal. App. 3d 63, 112 Cal. Rptr. 76 (1974).Google Scholar
  150. Paravecchio v. Memorial Hospital, 1742 P.2d. 1276 (Wyo. 1987).Google Scholar
  151. Perry, H.B., Detmer, D.E., & Redmond, E.L. (1981). The current and future role of surgical physician assistants: Report of national survey of surgical chairmen in large U.S. hospitals. Annals of Surgery, 1993, 132–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Perry, J.G., & Turk, E.E. (1977). Professional characteristics and work patterns of mental health personnel supported under NIMH training grants: 1948–1968. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.Google Scholar
  153. Phelan, J.J. (1974). Regulation of the television repair industry in Louisiana and California: A case study. (Staff report to the Federal Trade Commission.) Washington DC: LJ.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  154. Pitts v. State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, 222 Md. 224, 160 A.2d 200 (1960).Google Scholar
  155. Poirier-Elliot, E. (1984, October). Cost-effectiveness of non-physician health care professionals. Nurse Practitioner, pp. 54–56.Google Scholar
  156. Pokorny, A.D., & Frazier, F.H., Jr. (1966). An evaluation of oral examinations. Journal of Medical Education, 4, 28–40.Google Scholar
  157. Porter, S.F. (1984). Ensuring competence: Toward a competency-based orientation format. the critical care clinical team. Critical Care Quarterly, 7(1), 42–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Powers, M.J., Jalowiec, A., & Reichelt, P.A. (1984, February). Nurse practitioner and physician care compared for nonurgent emergency room patients. Nurse Practitioner, pp. 39–52.Google Scholar
  159. Price, P.B., Taylor, C.W., Richards, J.M., & Jacobsen, T.L. (1964). Measurement of physician performance. Journal of Medical Education, 32(2), 203–211.Google Scholar
  160. Ramsay, J.A., McKenzie, J.K., & Fish, D.G. (1982). Physicians and nurse practitioners: Do they provide equivalent health care? American Journal of Public Health, 72(1), 55–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rayack, E. (1967). Professional power and American medicine: The economics of the American Medical Association. Cleveland: World Publishing.Google Scholar
  162. Rayack, E. (1983). Medical licensure. Law and Human Behavior, 7, 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Record, J.C (1981). Staffing primary care in 1990: Physician replacement and cost savings. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  164. Robyn, D., & Hadley, J. (1989). National health insurance and the new health occupations: Nurse practitioners and physicians’ assistants. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 5(3), 447–469.Google Scholar
  165. Robyn, D., & Hadley, J. (1980). National health insurance and the new health occupations: Nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and law, 5(3), 447–469.Google Scholar
  166. Rogers, C.R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rogers, C.R. (1973). Some new challenges. American Psychologist, 28, 379–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rogers, C.R., Gendlin, E.T., Kiesler, D.J., & Truax, C.B. (1967). The therapeutic relationship and its impact: A study of psychotherapy with schizophrenics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  169. Romeis, J.C., Schey, H.M., Marion, G.S., & Keith, J.F. (1985). Extending the extenders: Compromise for the geriatric specialization-manpower debate. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 33(8), 559–565.Google Scholar
  170. Rosenaur, J., Stanford, D., Morgan, W., et al. (1984). Prescribing behaviors of primary care nurse practitioners. American Journal of Public Health, 74, 10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rouse, M.O. (1968). Walter L. Bierring Lecture. Federation Bulletin, 55, 70–78.Google Scholar
  172. Sachs, J.S. (1983). Negative factors in brief psychotherapy: An empirical assessment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 557–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sakinofsky, I. (1979). Evaluating the competence of psychotherapists. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 24, 193–204.Google Scholar
  174. Sales, B., Bricklin, P., & Hall, J. (1984). Specialization in psychology: Principles. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Board of Professional Affairs Subcommittee on Specialization.Google Scholar
  175. Schieiter, M.K., & Tarlov, A.R. (1985). National study of internal medicine manpower, IX. Internal medicine residency and fellowship training: 1984 update. Annals of Internal Medicine, 102, 681–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Schware v. Board of Bar Examiners of New Mexico, 353 U.S. 232 (1957).Google Scholar
  177. Segall, A. (1980). Generic and specific competence. Medical Education, 14 (Suppl.), 19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Selfridge, J. (1984). A competency-based orientation program for the emergency department. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 10, 246–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Sellers V. Wyoming Board of Psychologist Examiners, 739 P.2d 129 (Wyo. 1987), cert, denied, 108 SC 508.Google Scholar
  180. Sepejak, D., Menzies, R.J., Webster, C.D., & Jensen, F.A.S. (1983). Clinical predictions of dangerousness: Two-year follow-up of 408 pretrial forensic cases. Bulletin of American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 11, 171–181.Google Scholar
  181. Shaw, B.F., & Dobson, K.S. (1988). Competency judgments in the training and evaluation of psychotherapists. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(5), 666–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Shimberg, B., Esser, B.F., & Kruger, D.H. (1972). Occupational licensing: Practices and policies. (A Report of the Educational Testing Service.) Washington DC: Public Affairs Press.Google Scholar
  183. Shriberg, L.D., Filley, F.S., Hayes, D.M., Kwiatkowski, J., Schatz, J.A., Simmons, K.M., & Smith, M.E. (1975). The Wisconsin procedures for appraisal of clinical competence. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 17, 153–165.Google Scholar
  184. Shyrock, R.H. (1967). Medical licensing in America, 1960–1965. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  185. Sigerist, H.E. (1960). In F. Marti-Ibanez (Ed.), Henry E. Sigerist on the history of medicine. New York: MD Publications.Google Scholar
  186. Silver, H.K., & McAtee, P.A. (1984). On the use of nonphysician “associate residents” in overcrowded specialty training programs. New England Journal of Medicine, 311, 326–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Sisty, N.L., Henderson, W.G., & Paule, C.I.. (1979). Review of training and evaluation studies in expanded functions for dental auxiliaries. Journal of the American Dental Association, 98, 233–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Sloan, F.A. (1971). Planning public expenditures on mental health service delivery (RM-6339-NYC). New York: New York Rand Institute.Google Scholar
  189. Smith, C. (1979). Physician extenders: Their current and future roles. Washington DC: U.S. Government Publication Office.Google Scholar
  190. Smith, M.L., Glass, G.V., & Miller, T.I. (1980). The benefits of psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  191. Sox, H.C. (1979). Quality of patient care by nurse practitioners and physicians’ assistants: A ten-year perspective. Annals of Internal Medicine, 91, 459–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Spence, R., Cole, D., Brown, A., Camishon, R., & Pello, M. (1987, July-August). Training for professional competence in general surgery. Current Surgery, 273–278.Google Scholar
  193. Stallard v. South Dakota Board of Examiners, 530 F. Supp. 155, D.S.D. (1982).Google Scholar
  194. Stiles, W.B., Putnam, S.M., James, S.A., & Wolf, M.H. (1979). Dimensions of patient and physician roles in medical screening interviews. Social Science and Medicine, 13A, 335–341.Google Scholar
  195. Stone, D.H. (1987). A method of deriving definitions of specific medical competencies: A framework for curriculum planning and evaluation. Medical Teacher, 9, 155–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Strauss v. Alabama State Bar, 520 F. Supp. 173 (N.D. Ala. 1981).Google Scholar
  197. Strupp, H.H. (1986). Psychotherapy: Research, Practice, and public policy (how too avoid dead ends). American Psychologist, 41, 120–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Supreme Court of New Hampshire v. Piper, 53 U.S.L.W. 4238 (1985).Google Scholar
  199. Taube, C.A., Burns, B.J., & Kessler, L. (1980). Patients of psychiatrists and psychologists in office-based practice: 1980. American Psychologist, 39, 1435–1447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Taylor, C.W. (1978). How many types of gifted-ness can your program tolerate? The Journal of Creative Behavior, 72(1), 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Taylor, C.W., Albo, D., Holland, J., & Brandt, G. (1985). Attributes of excellence in various professions: Their relevance to the selection of gifted/ talented persons. Gifted Child Quarterly, 29(1), 29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Taylor, C.W., & Ellison, R.L. (1967). Biographical predictors of scientific performance. Science, 155, 1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Taylor, C.W., & Holland, J. (1962). Development and applications of tests of creativity. Review of Educational Research, 32(1), 91–102.Google Scholar
  204. Taylor, C.W., & Holland, J. (1964). Predictors of creative performance. In C.W. Taylor (Ed.), Creativity: Progress and potential (pp. 14–48). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  205. Taylor, C.W., Smith, W.R., & Ghiselin, B. (1959). Scientific creativity: Its recognition and development. In C.W. Taylor & F. Barron (Eds.), Scientific creativity: Its recognition and development (pp. 53–76). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  206. Taylor, R.L., & Torrey, E.F. (1972). The pseudo-regulation of American Psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 658–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Thompson, R.S., Basden, P., & Howell, L.J. (1982). Evaluation of initial implementation of an organized adult health program employing family nurse practitioners. Medical Care, 20(11), 1109–1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Thompson v. Schmidt, 601 F.2d 305 (7th Cir. 1979).Google Scholar
  209. Trebilock, M.J., & Shaul, J. (1983). Law and Human Behavior, 7(2A), 265–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Trebilock, M.J., Tuohy, C.J., & Wolfson, A.D. (1979). Professional regulation. Toronto: Ontario Government Printer.Google Scholar
  211. Truax, C.B., & Mitchell, K.M. (1971). Research on certain therapist interpersonal skills in relation to process and outcome. In A.E. Bergin & S.L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis (pp. 299–344). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  212. U.S. Congress, House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (1975). Getting ready for national health insurance: Hearing before the subcommittee on oversight and investigations (Serial No. 94–37). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  213. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Health Professions. (1984). Report to the President and Congress on the status of health personnel in the United States (USDHHS Pub. No. HRS-P-OD 84–4). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  214. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (1971). Report on licensure and related health personnel credentialing (to the Congress of the United States). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  215. U.S. Department of Labor. (1969). Occupational licensing and the supply of nonprofessional manpower (Manpower Research Monograph No. 11). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  216. U.S. National Advisory Commission on Health Manpower. (1967). Report of the National Advisory Commission on Health Manpower (2 Vols.). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  217. United States v. Lulac, 793 F.2d 636 (5th Cir. 1986).Google Scholar
  218. United States v. South Carolina, 445 F. Supp. 1094 (D.S.C. 1978), affirmed, 434 U.S. 1026, 98 S.Ct. 756, 54 LE2d 775 (1978).Google Scholar
  219. Vandenbos, G.R., & Stapp, J. (1983). Service providers in psychology: Results of the 1982 APA Human Resources Survey. American Psychologist, 1330–1352.Google Scholar
  220. Weiner, J.P., Steinwachs, D.M., & Williamson, J.W. (1986). Nurse practitioner and physician assistant practices in three HMO’s: Implications for future U.S. health manpower needs. American Journal of Public Health, 76(5), 507–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Werner, E. (1981). A review of the examination for professional practice in psychology. Report to the Central Testing Unit, California Department of Consumer Affairs. Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  222. Weston, J.L. (1984). Ambiguities limit the role of nurse practitioners and physician assistants. American Journal of Public Health, 74, 6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. White, D.M., & Francis, R.L. (1976). Title VII and the masters of reality: Eliminating credentialism in the American labor market. Georgetown Law Journal, 64, 1213–1244.Google Scholar
  224. White, W.D. (1983). Labor market organization and professional regulation: A historical analysis of nursing licensure. Law and Human Behavior, 7, 157–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Whitehead, A.N. (1966). Adventures of ideas. New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1933).Google Scholar
  226. Whitfield v. Illinois Board of Law Examiners, 504 F.2d 474 (7th Cir. 1974).Google Scholar
  227. William, R.G., Barrows, H.S., Vu, N.V., (1987). Direct standardised assessment of clinical competence. Medical Education, 21, 482–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Willner v. Committee on Character and Fitness, 373 U.S. 96 (1963).Google Scholar
  229. Windle, C., Poppen, P.J., Thompson, J.W., & Marvelle, K. (1988). Types of patients served by various providers of outpatient care in CMCHs. American Journal Psychiatry, 145(4), 457–463.Google Scholar
  230. Winefield, H.R. (1987). Psychotherapy and social support: Parallels and differences in the helping process. Clinical Psychology, 7, 631–644.Google Scholar
  231. Yandell, D.P., & Bencomo, A.A. (1987). The social and financial impact of psychology in Arizona: A report to the legislature in support of continued direct recognition of psychologists as independent health service providers, in response to A.R.S. Section 20–181 and 182. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  232. Yankauer, A., & Sullivan, J. (1982). The new health professionals: Three examples. Annual Review of Public Health, 3, 249–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonore Simon
  • Bruce Sales
  • Lee Sechrest

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations