Modern Social-Scientific Theories and Data Concerning Discrimination: Implications for Using Social Science Evidence in the Courts

  • Alan J. Tomkins
  • Jeffrey E. Pfeifer


As we enter the last decade of the 20th century, it is easy to look back over the years and recognize that the civil rights movement has come a long way since the days of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the U.S. Supreme Court case that held that segregated facilities were not prohibited as a matter of constitutional law. In a society in which the nation’s highest court could assert such a proposition (and further assert that “[i]f one race be inferior to the other socially” there was nothing that a Court decision could do to about it and that if black people felt bad about themselves in a segregated society, it was “solely because the colored race chooses to put that construction upon it” Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896, pp. 551–552), it is hardly surprising that acts of overt discrimination were common, especially against African-American targets.


Social Distance Employment Discrimination Prejudicial Attitude Disparate Treatment Symbolic Racism 
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  • Alan J. Tomkins
  • Jeffrey E. Pfeifer

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