Radiation Dosimetry, Safety, and Regulations
Radiation can cause deleterious effects in living systems. It is therefore essential to assess these effects in humans for a given nuclear medicine procedure involving the administration of a radiopharmaceutical. The damaging effects arise from the absorption of energy in tissues and depend on a number of factors: (1) the activity of the administered radiopharmaceutical, (2) the physical and biologic half-lives of the radiopharmaceutical, (3) the distribution and metabolic fate of the radiopharmaceutical in the body, (4) the fraction of energy released per disintegration from a source region that is absorbed in the particular target volume, and (5) the shape and mass of the target organ. The physical characteristics of a radiopharmaceutical are well established. Information concerning the proper biologic handling of a radiopharmaceutical can be obtained from various experimental studies in humans and animals. Because there are variations from one individual to another in physiologic functions and in the shape, size, density, and relative location of different organs, the factors 3–5 listed above are approximated for a “standard” or “average” 70-kg man.
KeywordsRadioactive Waste Radiation Protection Radioactive Material Exposure Rate Radiation Safety
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