Structure and High-Temperature Creep of Oxide Ceramics. Properties of Diffusion Path and Their Influence on Creep

  • V. S. Bakunov
  • A. V. Belyakov


Lifetime of ceramic workpieces at elevated temperatures is limited by their creep resistance and damage tolerance. Ceramic materials are usually composed of one or several crystalline phases, glass phases, and pores and have a complex multi-level hierarchical structure. Creep of ceramics occurs primarily due to a deformation of a substance in the intercrystal line area. At high temperatures, in a stable creep regime distant from the point at which a fracture starts, the mechanism of this deformation is the bulk diffusion (NabarroHerring-Lifshitz’s bulk diffusion). For most of oxide ceramics, the principle type of diffusion is the vacancy diffusion. Quantitative parameters of the process (activation energy and creep flow rate) are defined by a movement of vacancies from their sources to sinks (diffusion path). Thus, properties of the diffusion path control the creep. The diffusion path could go through the bulk of a crystal or through a substance in the intercrystal area of the ceramic material. A type of the diffusion path chosen by the system depends primarily on amount, composition, and plastic properties of the intercrystal line substance. From viewpoint of this generalised approach, various cases of creep behaviour are discussed and parameters affecting creep properties of ceramics, such as crystal size, content of impurities or artificial additives, porosity, concentration of point defects, etc., are considered on the base of selected experimental results for ceramics based on aluminum, magnesium, and cerium oxides, mullite as well as industrial refractors.


Crystal Size Creep Rate Diffusion Path Creep Property Bulk Diffusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    V.S. Bakunov, Peculiarity of high temperature creep of ceramics, Refractories and Industrial Ceramics (translated from Ogneupory i Technitsheskaya Keramica), 38 (11-12), 449 - 452 (1997).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    V.S. Bakunov, and A.V. Belyakov, Analyzing the structure of ceramics, Inorganic Materials (translated from Neorganicheskie Materialy), 32 (2), 220 - 223 (1996).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y.-M. Chiang, D.P. Birnie, W.D. Kingery, Physical ceramics, John Wiley & sons, New York (1997).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Haken, Synergetics, Springer-Verlag, New York (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. M. Lifshitz, To theory of diffusion-viscous flow of polycrystals bodies, Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (translated from Zhurnal Eksperimental’noy i Teoreticheskoy Phiziki), 44 (4), 1349 - 67 (1963).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    V.S. Bakunov, E.A. Voshchakin, K.I. Ryabtsev et al., Apparatus for Investigating of thermo-mechanical properties of refractory materials at four points flexure, Ogneupory, 2, 39 - 43 (1975).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.V. Belyakov, and A.N. Souhozhak, Production of transparent ceramics (review), Glass and Ceramics (translated from Steklo i Keramica), 52 (1-2), 14 - 19 (1995).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.V. Belyakov, Defect chemistry and nonequilibrium in the manufacture of poreless fine-crystal oxide ceramics, Steklo i Keramica, 4, 13 - 15 (1999).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.Yu. Balshin, Contact cross section of powder compacts and sintered bodies and values of their mechanical properties referred to the contact cross section, Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya, 4, 29 - 33 (1963).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    V.S. Bakunov, High-temperature creep of refractory ceramics, Refractories (translated from Ogneupory),35 (11-12), 353-370 (1994).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. S. Bakunov
    • 1
  • A. V. Belyakov
    • 2
  1. 1.Joint Institute of High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Technology of Ceramics and RefractorsD.I. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of RussiaMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations