Diseases of the Liver

  • Michael L. Parchman


The liver is vulnerable to injury from viral agents and to exposure to ingested and inhaled toxins. The usual result of injury is an inflammatory reaction known as hepatitis. Hepatitis may be classified as acute or chronic.


Acute Viral Hepatitis Chronic Persistent Hepatitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Lednar WM, Lemon SM, Kirkpatrick JW, et al. Frequency of illness associated with epidemic hepatitis A virus infections in adults. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:226–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McIntyre M. Clinical presentation of acute viral hepatitis. Br Med Bull 1990;46:533–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tozan N, Forbes A, Anderson MG, Murray-Lyon IM. Safety of alcohol consumption after acute viral hepatitis. Lancet 1991;337: 1079–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Farero MS, Maynard JE, Leger RT, et al. Guidelines for the care of patients hospitalized with viral hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 1979;91:872–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stevens CE, Beasley RP, Tsui J, Lee WD. Vertical transmission of hepatitis B antigen in Taiwan. N Engl J Med 1975;292:771–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wright R, Millward-Sadler GH, Bull FG. Acute viral hepatitis. In: Wright RW, Millward-Sadler GH, editors. Liver and biliary disease. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1985:677–767.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to clinical preventive services: an assessment of the effectiveness of 169 interventions. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1990:369–72.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    McMahon BJ, Alward WLM, Hall DB, et al. Acute hepatitis B infection: relation of age to the clinical expression of disease and subsequent development of the carrier state. J Infect Dis 1985;151:599–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Foutch PG, Carey WD, Tabor E, et al. Concomitant hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in thirteen patients. Ann Intern Med 1983;99:460–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Choo QL, Weiner AJ, Overby LR, et al. Hepatitis C virus: the major causative agent of viral non-A, non-B hepatitis. Br Med Bull 1990;46:423–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dienstag JL. Non-A, non-B hepatitis: recognition, epidemiology and clinical features. Gastroenterology 1983;83:439–62.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Esteban JI, Esteban R, Viladomiu L, et al. Hepatitis C virus antibodies among risk groups in Spain. Lancet 1989;2:294–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brotman B, Boehle W, Prince AM. Absence of perinatal transmission of blood-borne non-A, non-B hepatitis virus by chimpanzees with acute and chronic infection. J Med Virol 1989;28:13–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Villarejos MV, Visona KA, Eduarte CA, et al. Evidence of viral hepatitis other than type A or type B among persons in Costa Rica. N Engl J Med 1975;293:1350–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hoofnagle JH, Alter HJ. In: Vyas GN, Dienstag JL, Hoofnagle JH, editors. Viral hepatitis and liver disease. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton, 1984:97–113.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alter HJ, Purcell RH, Shih JW, et al. Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in prospectively followed transfusion recipients with acute and chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1989;321:1494–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Williams AE, Dodd RY. The serology of hepatitis C virus in relation to post-transfusion hepatitis. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1990;20: 192–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koretz RL, Stone O, Gitnick GL. The long-term course of non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1980;79:893–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Purcell RH. Enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Prog Liver Dis 1990;9:497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stevens CE, Toy PT, Tong MJ, et al. Perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in the United States: prevention by passive-active immunization. JAMA 1985;253:1740–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Czaja AJ, Ammon HV, Summerskill WH. Clinical features and prognosis of severe chronic active liver disease (CALD) after corticosteroid induced remission. Gastroenterology 1980;78:518–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Korenman J, Baker B, Waggoner J, et al. Long term remission of chronic hepatitis B after alpha-interferon therapy. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:629–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bisceglie AM, Hoofnagle JH. Antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1990;85:650–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Centers for Disease Control, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommendations for protection against viral hepatitis. MMWR 1985;34:313–24, 329–35.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rustgi VK, Hoofnagle JH. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy. Semin Liver Dis 1987;7(1):40–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alter MJ, Hadler SC, Margolis HS, et al. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States: need for alternative vaccination strategies. JAMA 1990;263:1218–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Centers for Disease Control. Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination. MMWR 1991;40(RR-13):1–19.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lieber CS. Biochemical and molecular basis of alcohol-induced injury to liver and other tissues. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1639–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sorensen TIA, Orholm M, Bensten KD, et al. Prospective evaluation of alcohol abuse and alcoholic liver disease in men as predictors of development of cirrhosis. Lancet 1984;1:241–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Norton R, Batey R, Dwyer R, MacMahon S. Alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis in women. BMJ 1987; 295:80–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Grant BF, Dufour MC, Harford TC. Epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 1988;8:12–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Okuda K. Hepatocellular carcinoma: recent progress. Hepatology 1992;15:948–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Simonetti RG, Calogero C, Fiorello F, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dusheiko GM. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with chronic viral hepatitis: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment. Br Med Bull 1990;46:492–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael L. Parchman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations