Musculoskeletal Problems in Children

  • Wade A. Lillegard
  • Richard Kruse


Parents frequently are concerned with the way their children walk and most commonly present with a chief complaint of either in-toeing or out-toeing. These torsional deformities can be due to problems from the foot (metatarsus adductus), tibia (excessive tibial version), or femur and hip (medial femoral torsion). They are usually benign findings but may be more serious. Gait analysis is performed by the examining physician to find out where the torsional deformity lies that is responsible for the in-toeing or out-toeing and to allow appropriate reassurance or counseling. Certain tests and definitions are used to evaluate gait (Fig. 16.1).


Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Slip Capital Femoral Epiphysis Tibial Torsion Transient Synovitis Congenital Muscular Torticollis 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wade A. Lillegard
  • Richard Kruse

There are no affiliations available

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