• Janet P. Realini


The natural history of menopause (the cessation of menses) and the climacteric (the period of transition from reproductive to postreproductive status) involves termination of the reproductive and endocrine functions of the ovaries. For many women this period in life is associated with symptoms and complaints.


Endometrial Cancer Luteinizing Hormone Endometrial Carcinoma Osteogenesis Imperfecta Systemic Mastocytosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Utian WH. Overview on menopause. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 156:1280–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mishell DR. Is routine use of estrogen indicated in postmenopausal women? An affirmative view. J Fam Pract 1989; 29:406–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wentz AC. Management of the menopause. In: Jones HW, Wentz AC, Burnett LS, editors. Novak’s textbook of gynecology. 11th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1988:398–442.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rebar RW, Spitzer IB. The physiology and measurement of hot flushes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;156:1284–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Estrogen prophylaxis. Am Fam Physician 1990;42:1293–6.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hazzard WR. Estrogen replacement and cardiovascular disease: serum lipids and blood pressure effects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:1847–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grady D, Rubin SM, Pettiti DB, Fox CS, et al. Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. Ann Int Med 1992;117:1016–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johnston CC, Slemenda CW, Melton LJ III. Clinical use of bone densitometry. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1105–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barrett-Conner E, Bush TL. Estrogen and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA 1991;265:1861–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goldman L, Tosteson ANA. Uncertainty about postmenopausal estrogen: time for action, not debate. N Engl J Med 1991;325: 800–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nabulsi AA, Folsom AR, White A, Patsch W, et al. Association of hormone-replacement therapy with various cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1069–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martin KA, Freeman MW. Postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1115–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Notelovitz M. Estrogen replacement therapy: indications, contraindications, and agent selection. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989; 161:1832–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Henderson BE, Ross RK, Lobo RA, Pike MC, Mack TM. Reevaluating the role of progestogen therapy after the menopause. Fertil Steril 1988;49:9S-15S.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steinberg KK, Thacker SB, Smith SJ, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1991;265:1985–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Henrich JB. The postmenopausal estrogen/breast cancer controversy. JAMA 1992;268:1900–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barrett-Conner E. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement and breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1989;321:319–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    American College of Physicians. Guidelines for counseling postmenopausal women about preventive hormone therapy. Ann Int Med 1992;117:1038–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walters M, Realini JP. Diagnosis and management of urinary incontinence in women: a primary care approach. J Am Board Fam Pract 1992;5:289–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cowan BD, Morrison JC. Management of abnormal genital bleeding in girls and women. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1710–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hormone replacement therapy. Technical Bulletin No. 166. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1992.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weinstein L, Bewtra C, Gallagher JC. Evaluation of a continuous combined low-dose regimen of estrogen-progestin for treatment of the menopausal patient. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 162: 1534–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet P. Realini

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations