Family Medicine pp 1544-1554 | Cite as

Care of the Elderly

  • William Reichel


The family physician of the future will be confronted with an increased number of elderly patients. With life expectancy rising steadily and with greater usage of birth control and abortion, all medical specialties will be faced with the problems of the elderly patient. In the year 1900, a woman’s life expectancy was 48 years, and now it is 77.1 years. A man’s life expectancy in 1900 was 46 years and now is 69.3 years. In the year 1900, there were 3.1 million Americans over the age of 65. At present, there are 24.5 million Americans over the age of 65. In the year 2000, 31,822,000 individuals, or 12.% of Americans who are projected to be alive at that time, will be 65 or older. The 31,822,000 senior citizens in the year 2000 are now currently alive and are among those who are 45 years of age or older at the time of this writing. One can only hope that the competencies of the family physician of the future will be equal to handling the special problems of the elderly population. One must also hope that society will be able to cope with the enormous problems of the elderly—social security, health care, housing, transportation, and education.


Nursing Home Family Physician Family Practice Rheumatic Heart Disease Pernicious Anemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Goldstein S, Reichel W: Physiological and biological aspects of aging. In: Reichel W (ed.) Clinical Aspects of Aging. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1978, pp. 492433.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andres R: Relation of physiologic changes in aging to medical changes in disease in the aged. Mayo Clin Proc 42: 674–684, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rowe J, Andres R, Tobin JD, Norris AH, Shock NW: The effect of age on creatinine clearance in men. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Gerontol 31: 155–163, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Costa PT, McCrae RR, Arenberg D: Enduring dispositions in adult males. J Personality Soc Psych 5: 793–800, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reichel W: Multiple problems in the elderly. In: Reichel W (ed.) The Geriatric Patient. New York, HP Publishing Co, 1978, pp. 17–22.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Howell TH: Causation of diagnostic errors in octogenarians. A clinicopatho1ogical study. J Am Geriatr Soc 14: 41–47, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lamy PT, Vestal RE: Drug prescribing for the elderly. In: Reichel W (ed.) The Geriatric Patient. New York, HP Publishing Co., 1978, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Byrd GJ: Acute organic brain syndrome associated with gentamicin therapy. JAMA 238: 53–54, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pratt TH: Rifampin-induced organic brain syndrome. JAMA 241: 2421–2422, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gilbert GJ: Quinidine dementia. JAMA 237: 2093–2094, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kurland ML: Organic brain syndrome with propranolol. N Engl J Med 300: 366, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reichel W: Organic brain syndromes. In: Reichel W (ed.) The Geriatric Patient. New York, HP Publishing Co, 31–38, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Advisory Committee on Organic Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association: Organic mental disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed. Washington, DC, American Psy chiatric Association, 1980, pp. 101–128. 14. Wells CE: Dementia. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Davis, 1977.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Cummings J, Benson DF, LoVerme S: Reversible de-mentia. JAMA 243: 2434–2439, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 16.
    Wells CE: Management of dementias. In: Katzman R (ed.) Congenital and Acquired Cognitive Disorders. New York, Raven Press, 1979, pp. 281–305.Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    Rossman I: Options for care of the aged sick. In: Reichel W (ed.) The Geriatric Patient. New York, HP Publishing Co, 1978, pp. 189–198.Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    Solon JA, Greenawalt LF: Physicians’ participation in nursing homes. Med Care 12: 486–497, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 19.
    Reichel W: The rr,le of the medical director in the skilled nursing facility. In: Reichel W (ed.) Clinical As pects of Aging. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1978, pp. 475–482.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    Committee on Aging and Council on Medical Service of American Medical Association: Guidelines for a med- ical director in a long-term care facility. In: The Medical Director in the Long-Term Care Facility. Chicago, American Medical Association, 1977, pp. 7–8.Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Kahn RL, Goldfarb AL, Pollack M, Peck A: Brief objec tive measures for the determination of mental status in the aged. Am J Psychiat 117: 326–328, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 22.
    Pfeiffer E: A short portable mental status questionnaire for reassessment of organic brain deficit in elderly pa-tients. J Am Geriatr Soc 23: 433–441, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 23.
    Terry RD, Wisniewski H: The ultrastructure of the neu rofibrillary tangle and the senile plaque. In: Wolsten-holme GEW, O’Connor M (eds.) Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Conditions. A Ciba Foundation Sympo-sium. London, Churchill, 1970.Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    Terry RD: Morphological changes in Alzheimer’s dis-senile dementia: ultrastructural changes and quan-titative studies. In: Katzman R (ed.) Congenital and Acquired Cognitive Disorders. New York, Raven Press, 1979, pp. 79–105.Google Scholar
  24. 25.
    Bowen DM, Spillane JA, Curzon G, et al.: Accelerated ageing or selective neuronal loss as an important cause of dementia? Lancet 1: 11–14, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 26.
    Fox JH, Topel JL, Huckman MS: Use of computerized tomography in senile dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 38: 948–953, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 27.
    Huckman MS, Fox J, Topel J: The validity of criteria for the evaluation of cerebral atrophy by computed to-mography. Radiology 116: 85–92, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 28.
    Fox JH, Topel J, Huckman MS: Dementia in the el-derly-a search for treatable illnesses. J Gerontol 30: 557–564, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 29.
    Menzer L, Sabin T, Mark VH: Computerized axial to mography-use in the diagnosis of dementia. JAMA 234: 754–757, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 30.
    Huckman MS, Fox JH, Ramsey RG: Computed tomog raphy in the diagnosis of degenerative diseases of the brain. Semin Roentgenol 12: 63–75, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 31.
    Jacobs L, Conti D, Kinkel WR, Manning E: “Normal pressure” hydrocephalus. JAMA 235: 510–512, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 32.
    Lewis KB: Heart disease in the elderly. In: Reichel W(ed.) The Geriatric Patient. New York, HP Publishing Co, 1978, pp 39–46.Google Scholar
  32. 33.
    Steel K: Evaluation of the geriatric patient. In: Reichel W (ed.) Clinical Aspects of Aging. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1978, pp. 3–12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Reichel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations