Family Medicine pp 1029-1068 | Cite as

The Immunologic System

  • Robert D. Gillette
  • James V. Lustig
  • Lois A. Nelson


Although the immune mechanism protects the host from a hostile environment by such means as destroying invading organisms and rejecting foreign cells and substances, it may also cause tissue damage and untoward symptoms in the host. Allergies are diseases that are mediated by such maladaptive immune responses. The word “allergy” (G. allos, other + ergon, work) was coined by vonPirquet early in the 20th century and denotes diseases in which exposure to foreign substances causes untoward signs and symptoms in susceptible subjects but has no significant effects in other people. Each of these conditions has its genesis in the ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin of a substance that is perceived by the body as foreign. The form of the maladaptive immune response varies from one allergic disease to another. Over time the scope of allergy and the work of allergists developed empirically to encompass the group of diseases to be considered in this section. Recent advances in immunology have led to a much wider conceptualization of the immune response and its consequences,1,2 but it is still clinically useful to group together diseases caused by immunologic hyperreactivity to exogenous antigens and to speak of them as “allergic.”


Atopic Dermatitis Food Allergy Allergic Rhinitis Family Physician Allergic Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Swineford O: Allergy versus clinical immunology: A critical analysis. Ann Allergy 33:262–266, 337–343, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fischer-Pap L: Allergy and immunology: Wedding of love or marriage of convenience. Ann Allergy 34: 244245, 1975.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coombs RRA, Gell PGH: The classification of allergic reactions underlying disease. In: Gell PGH, Coombs RRA (eds). Clinical Aspects of Immunology. FA Davis Co., Philadelphia, 1963, p. 317.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Levine BB: Genetics of atopic allergy and reagin production. Clin Allergy 3 (Supp): 539–559, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hoekelman RA: Allergy in childhood: A pediatrician’s viewpoint. Pediatr Clin North Am 21: 5–21, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang WWY: Pollen survey of the United States. In: Patterson R (ed). Allergic Diseases: Diagnosis and Management, 2nd ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1980, pp. 148–178.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roth A: Allergy in the World. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1978.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Settipane GA, Chaffee FH: Nasal polyps in asthma and rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 59: 17–21, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Orgel HA, Kemp JP, Meltzer EO et al.: Atopy and IgE in a pediatric allergy practice. Ann Allergy 39: 16 1168, 1977.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Adkinson NF: The radioallergosorbent test: Uses and abuses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 1–4, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deamer WC: Allergy skin testing in children. J Fam Pract 2: 459–463, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rasmuson M, Collinder E, Henschen-Edman A et al.: Allergic reaction patterns in relation to age, sex, season, eosinophilia and some genetic marker systems. Acta Allergol 28: 365–400, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Voorhorst R, vanKrieken H: Atopic skin test reevaluated. II. Variability in results of skin testing done in octuplicate. Ann Allergy 31: 499–508, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zwemer RJ, Karibo J: Use of laminar control device as adjunct to standard environmental control measures in symptomatic asthmatic children. Ann Allergy 31: 284–290, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lichtenstein LM, Valentine MD, Sobotka AK: Insect allergy: The state of the art. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 5–12, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Collins-Williams C: The status of immunotherapy in children—what are the problems? Ann Allergy 39: 8793, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Norman PS: An overview of immunotherapy: Implications for the future. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 8796, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Metre TE, Adkinson NF, Amodio FJ et al.: A comparative study of the effectiveness of the Rinkel method and the current standard method of immunotherapy for ragweed pollen hay fever. J Allergy Clin Immunol 66: 500–513, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Solley GO: Present status of immunotherapy (desensitization) for allergic disorders. South Med J 72: 183188, 1979.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Golbert TM: A review of controversial diagnostic and therapeutic techniques employed in allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56: 170–190, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Patterson R, Lieberman P, Irons JS et al.: Immunotherapy. In: Middleton E, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds). Allergy: Principles and Practice. Mosby, St. Louis, 1978, pp. 877–898.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Graham PJ, Rutter ML, Yule W et al.: Childhood asthma: A psychosomatic disorder? Some epidemiological considerations. Br J Prey Soc Med 21: 78–85, 1967.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Freeman EH, Feingold BH, Schlesinger K et al.: Psychological variables in allergic disorders: A review. Psychosom Med 26: 543–575, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mattsson A: Long-term physical illness in childhood: A challenge to psychosocial adaptation. Pediatrics 50: 801–811, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McNichol KN, Williams HE, Allan J et al.: Spectrum of asthma in children. III. Psychological and social components. Br Med J 4: 16–20, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berrens L: Inhalant allergens in human atopic disease: Their chemistry and modes of action. Ann NY Aced Sci 221: 183–198, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Broder I, Higgins MW, Mathews KP et al.: Epidemiology of asthma and allergic rhinitis in a total community, Tecumseh, Michigan. IV. Natural history. J Allergy Clin Immunol 54: 100–110, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barkin GD, McGovern JP: Allergy statistics. Ann Allergy 24: 602, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Blue JA: Current concepts of allergy of the eye. Ann Allergy 33: 267–273, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gorenberg D: Rhinitis medicamentosa. West J Med 131: 313, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lockey RF, Bukantz SC: Allergic emergencies. Med Clin North Am 58: 147–156, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    AAP Committee on drugs. Anaphylaxis. Pediatrics 51: 136–140, 1973.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    McQueen EG: Pharmacological basis of adverse drug reactions. In: Avery GS. Drug Treatment: Principles and Practice of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Adis Press, Sidney and New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Arndt KA, Jick H: Rates of cutaneous reactions to drugs. JAMA 235: 918–922, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jick H: Drugs-remarkably nontoxic. N Engl J Med 291: 824–828, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jenner GG, Macintosh D, West SR et al.: Intensive monitoring of adverse reactions in general practice. NZ J Med 83: 378–379, 1976.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Green GR, Rosenblum AH, Sweet LC: Evaluation of penicillin hypersensitivity: Value of clinical history and testing with penicilloyl-polylysine and penicillin G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 60: 339–345, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chandra RK, Joglekar SA, Tomas E: Penicillin allergy: Anti-penicillin IgE antibodies and immediate hypersensitivity skin reactions employing major and minor determinants of penicillin. Arch Dis Child 55: 857–860, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Geyman JP, Erickson S: The ampicillin rash as a diagnostic and management problem: Case reports and literature review. J Fam Pract 7: 493–496, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Abrishami MA, Thomas J: Aspirin intolerance-a review. Ann Allergy 39: 28–37, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Speer F, Denison TR, Baptist JE: Aspirin allergy. Ann Allergy 46: 123–126, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Spector SL, Wangaard CH, Farr RS: Aspirin and concomitant idiosyncrasies in adult asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 500–506, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cloninger P: Reactions to local anesthetic agents. West J Med 131: 316–317, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schatz M, Patterson R, O’Rourke J et al.: The administration of radiographic contrast media to patients with a history of previous reaction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 55: 358–366, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    James FK, Pence HL, Driggers DP et al.: Imported fire ant hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 58: 110–120, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: NIH Consensus development conference on emergency treatment of insect sting allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 63: 77–79, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Frazier CA: Insect stings-a medical emergency. JAMA 235: 2410–2411, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yunginger JW: The sting-revisited. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 1–2, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Margileth AM: Allergic dermatoses in children. Pediatr Ann 8: 495–506, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Johnson EE, Irons JS, Patterson R et al.: Serum IgE concentration in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 54: 94–99, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Byrom NA, Timlin DM: Immune status in atopic eczema: A survey. Br J Dermatol 100: 491–498, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kramer MS, Moroz B: Do breast-feeding and delayed introduction of solid foods protect against subsequent atopic eczema? J Pediatr 98: 546–550, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fritz GK: Psychological aspects of atopic dermatitis: a viewpoint. Clin Pediatr 18: 360–364, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gellin GA: Differential diagnosis of occupational skin disorders. Cutis 5: 149–152, 1969.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Monroe EW, Jones HE: Urticaria: An updated review. Arch Dermatol 113: 80–90, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Soter NA, Wasserman SI: Urticaria/angioedema: A consideration of pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. Int J Dermatol 18: 517–532, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stone SP: Problems in family practice: Urticaria. J Fam Pract 2: 455–458, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fineman SM: Urticaria and angioedema: A practical approach. South Med J 73: 915–919, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fisherman EW, Cohen GN: Chronic and recurrent urticaria: New concepts of drug-group sensitivity. Ann Allergy 39: 404–414, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Settipane RA, Constantine HP, Settipane GA: Aspirin intolerance and recurrent urticaria in normal adults and children. Allergy 35: 149–154, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Champion RH, Roberts SOB, Carpenter RG et al.: Urticaria and angio-oedema: a review of 554 patients. Br J Dermatol 81: 588–597, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fava GA, Perini GI, Santonastaso P et al.: Life events and psychological distress in dermatological disorders: Psoriasis, chronic urticaria and fungal infections. Br J Med Psychol 53: 277–282, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Margolis CF, Estes SA: Symptomatic dermographism. J Fam Pract 13: 993–995, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jacobson KW, Branch LB, Nelson HS: Laboratory tests in chronic urticaria. JAMA 243: 1644–1646, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Monroe EW: Urticaria and urticarial vasculitis. Med Clin North Am 64: 867–883, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Green GR, Koelsche GA, Kierland RR: Etiology andGoogle Scholar
  67. pathogenesis of chronic urticaria. Ann Allergy 23: 3036, 1965.Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    Ros A-M, Juhlin L, Michaelsson G: A follow-up study of patients with recurrent urticaria and hypersensitivity to aspirin, benzoates and azo dyes. Br J Dermatol 95: 19–24, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Kram JA, Bourne HR, Maibach HI et al.: Cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity in man: Effects of systemically administered adrenergic drugs. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56: 387–392, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Schaumburg HH, Byck R, Gerstl R et al.: Monosodium t.-glutamate: Its pharmacology and role in the Chinese Restaurant Syndrome. Science 163: 826–828, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Mattes JA, Gittelman R: Effects of artificial food colorings in children with hyperactive symptoms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 714–718, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    McNichol KN, Williams HE: Spectrum of asthma in children—I. Clinical and physiological components. Br Med J 4: 7–11, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Froom J: Prevalence and natural history of chronic diseases in childhood. In: Grave GD, Pless IB (eds). Chronic Childhood Illness: Assessment of outcome. DHEW Publication No. ( NIH ) 76–877, 1976.Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Kuzemko JA: Natural history of childhood asthma. J Pediatr 97: 886–892, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    ACCP-ATS Joint Committee on Pulmonary Nomenclature. Pulmonary terms and symbols. Chest 67: 583593, 1975.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Beers RF. Diseases which simulate allergy. Med Clin North Am 58: 207–231, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Cloutier MM, Loughlin GM: Chronic cough in children: A manifestation of airway hyperreactivity. Pediatrics 67: 6–12, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Barnes P, FitzGerald G, Brown M et al.: Nocturnal asthma and changes in circulatory epinephrine, histamine and cortisol. N Engl J Med 303: 263–267, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Lulla S, Newcomb RW: Emergency management of asthma in children. J Pediatr 97: 346–350, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Williams MH: Evaluation of asthma. Chest 76: 3–4, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Piafsky KM, Ogilvie RI: Dosage of theophylline in bronchial asthma. N Engl J Med 293: 1218–1222, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Wyatt R, Weinberger M, Hendeles L: Oral theophylline dosage for management of chronic asthma. J Pediatr 92: 125–130, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Jusko WJ, Koup JR, Vance JW et al.: Intravenous theophylline therapy: Nomogram guidelines. Ann Intern Med 86: 400–404, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Bonham A, Hendeles L, Vaughan L et al.: The reliability of serum theophylline determinations from clinical laboratories. Am Rev Respir Dis 122: 829–832, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Weinberger M: Theophylline for treatment of asthma. J Pediatr 92: 1–7, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Webb Johnson DC, Andrews JL: Bronchodilator therapy (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 297: 476 482, 1977.Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    Jenkinson SG, Light RW, George RB: Comparison of albuterol and isoproterenol aerosols in bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy 39: 423–425, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Loren ML, Chai H, Leung P et al.: Corticosteroids in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma. Ann Allergy 45: 67–71, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Webb Johnson DC, Andrews JL: Bronchodilator therapy (second of two parts). N Engl J Med 297: 758764, 1977.Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Wyatt R, Waschek J, Weinberger M et al.: Effects of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate and alternate-day prednisone on pituitary-adrenal function in children with chronic asthma. N Engl J Med 299: 1387 1392, 1978.Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    Godfrey S: The relative merits of cromolyn sodium and high-dose theophylline therapy in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 97–104, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Godfrey S: Exercise-induced asthma. J Allergy 33: 229237, 1978.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Deal EC, McFadden ER, Ingram RH et al.: Hyperpnea and heat flux: Initial reaction sequence in exercise-induced asthma. J Appl Physiol 46: 476–483, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Fitch KD, Godfrey S: Asthma and athletic performance. JAMA 236: 152–157, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Gordon M, Niswander KR, Berendes H et al.: Fetal morbidity following potentially anoxigenic obstetric conditions. VII. Bronchial asthma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 106: 421–429, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Greenberger P, Patterson R: Safety of therapy for allergic symptoms during pregnancy. Ann Intern Med 89: 234–237, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Hernandez E, Angell CS, Johnson JWC: Asthma in pregnancy: Current concepts. Obstet Gynecol 55: 739743, 1980.Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Creer TL. Asthma: Psychologie aspects and management. In: Middleton E, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds). Allergy: Principles and Practice. Mosby, St. Louis, 1978, pp. 796–811.Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    Gauthier Y, Fortin C, Drapeau P et al.: The mother-child relationship and the development of autonomy and self-assertion in young (14–30 months) asthmatic children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 16: 109–131, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Norrish M, Tooley M, Godfrey S: Clinical, physiological, and psychological study of asthmatic children attending a hospital clinic. Arch Dis Child 52: 912–917, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Parcel GS, Gilman SC, Nader PR et al.: A comparison of absentee rates of elementary school children with asthma and nonasthmatic schoolmates. Pediatrics 64: 878–881, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Horton DJ, Suda WL, Kinsman RA et al.: Bronchoconstrictive suggestion in asthma: A role for airways hyperreactivity and emotions. Am Rev Respir Dis 117: 1029–1038, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Dahlem NW, Kinsman RA, Horton DJ: Panic-fear in asthma: Requests for as-needed medications in relation to pulmonary function measurements. J Allergy Clin Immunol 60: 295–300, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Gauthier Y, Fortin C, Drapeau P et al.: Follow-up study of 35 asthmatic preschool children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 17: 679–694, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Mattsson A: Psychological aspects of childhood asthma. Pediatr Clin North Am 22: 77–88, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Creer TL: Asthma therapy: A Behavioral Health Care System for Respiratory Therapy. Springer, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Liebman R, Minuchin S, Baker L: The use of structured family therapy in the treatment of intractable asthma. Am J Psychiatry 131: 535–540, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Hindi-Alexander M, Cropp GJA: Community and family programs for children with asthma. Ann Allergy 46: 143–148, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Epstein SW, Manning CPR, Ashley MJ et al.: Survey of the clinical use of pressurized aerosol inhalers. Can Med Assoc J 120: 813–816, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Rubinfeld AR, Pain MCF: Perception of asthma. Lancet 1 (7965): 882–884, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Eney RD, Goldstein EO: Compliance of chronic asthmatics with oral administration of theophylline as measured by serum and salivary levels. Pediatrics 57: 513517, 1976.Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    Creer TL, Burns KL: Self-management training for children with chronic bronchial asthma. Psychother Psychosom 32: 270–278, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Ammann AJ, Wara DW: Evaluation of infants and children with recurrent infection. Curr Prob Pediatr 5 (11): 3–47, 1975.Google Scholar
  114. 113.
    Stiehm ER, Fudenberg HH: Serum levels of immunoglobulins in health and disease: A survey. Pediatrics 37: 715–727, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Stimpson PG, PatyJG, Hudson T et al.: Delayed hypersensitivity skin testing for assessing energy in the mid-South. South Med J 69: 424–426, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Steele RW, Suttle DE, LeMaster PC et al.: Screening for cell-mediated immunity in children. Am J Dis Child 130: 1218–1221, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Stiehm ER, Fulginiti VA: Immunologic Disorders in Infants and Children, 2nd cd. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1980.Google Scholar
  118. 117.
    Rieger CHL, Nelson LA, Peri BA, LustigJV, Newcomb RW: Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. J Pediatr 91: 601–603, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Tiller TL, Buckley RH: Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy: Review of the literature, clinical and immunologic features of 11 new cases, and longterm follow-up. J Pediatr 92: 347–353, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Grybowski JD, Kocoshis S: Immunoglobulin deficiency in gastrointestinal allergies. J Clin Gastroenterol 2: 7176, 1980.Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    Hill HR: Laboratory aspects of immune deficiency in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 27 (4): 805–830, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    O’Loughlin JM: Infections in the immunosuppressed patient. Med Clin North Am 59 (2): 495–501, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Carney JM, Warner MS, Borut T et al.: Cell-mediated immune defects and infection: A study of malnourished hospitalized children. Am J Dis Child 134: 824827, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert D. Gillette
  • James V. Lustig
  • Lois A. Nelson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations