The Cardiovascular System

  • V. Franklin Colón
  • Alan D. Forker
  • Robert S. Eliot


The leading cause of death in the United States is cardiovascular disease. Myocardial infarctions claim over 600,000 lives a year, and strokes and other vascular diseases claim in excess of another 400,000. The family physician with a good basic background in cardiovascular disease can provide definitive care for the vast majority of problems. In order to maximize his effectiveness, he does need to become aware of his levels of competence; he must screen his patients carefully, identify their problems, and then characterize their therapeutic needs. Those persons whose problems fall within his capabilities should be treated by him. For those who do not, he should seek consultation with or refer to a cardiologist.


Aortic Valve Mitral Valve Congenital Heart Disease Angina Pectoris Unstable Angina 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Eliot RS, Baroldi G, Leone A: Necropsy studies in myocardial infarction with minimal or no coronary luminal reduction due to atherosclerosis. Circulation 49: 1127–1131, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ong Y, Quaife M, Dzindzio B, Emery J, Forker A: Clinical value of treadmill testing with thallium 201. Am J Med 69: 31, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shand DG: Drug therapy. Propranolol. N Engl J Med 293: 280–285, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tine M, Fabrot L, Smith S, McDonald K, Chidsey CA: Correlation of plasma propranolol concentration with therapeutic response in patients with angina pectoris. Circulation 52: 886–893, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruce KA, Hornstein TR: Exercise stress testing in evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 11: 371–390, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheitlin MD, Davia JE, de Castro CM, Barrow EA, Anderson WT: Correlation of “critical” left coronary artery lesions with positive submaximal exercise tests in patients with chest pain. Am Heart J 89: 305–310, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ellestead MH: Stress Testing, Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, Davis, 1975.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldschlager N, Selzer A, Cohn K: Treadmill stress tests as indicators of presence and severity of coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 85: 277–286, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McNeer J, Margolis J, Lee K, Kisslo J, Peter R, Kong Y, Behar V, Wallace A, McCants C, Rosati R: Role of exercise test in the evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. Circulation 57: 64–70, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McConahay DR, Killen DA, McCallister BD, Arnold M, Reed WA, Crockett JE, Bell HH: Coronary artery bypass surgery for left main coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 37: 885–889, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oliva PB, Potts DE, Pluss RG: Coronary arterial spasm in Prinzmetal angina. Documentation by coronary arteriography. N Engl J Med 288: 745–751, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gazes PC, Mobley EM, Farris HN, Duncan RC, Humphries GB: Preinfarction angina. A prospective study. Ten years follow-up. Circulation 48: 331–337, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hultgren HN: Medical versus surgical treatment of unstable angina. Am J Cardiol 38: 479–486, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bertolasi CA, Tronge JE, Riccitelli MA, Villamayor RM, Zuffardi E: Natural history of unstable angina with medical or surgery therapy. Chest 70: 596–605, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    National Cooperative Study Group: Unstable angina pectoris. In-hospital experience and initial follow-up results in patients with one, two, and three vessel disease. Am J Cardiol 42: 839, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alderman EL, Barry WH, Graham AF, Harrison DC: Hemodynamic effects of morphine and pentazocine in cardiac patients. N Engl J Med 287: 623–627, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cote P, Gueret P, Bourassa NG: Systemic and coronary hemodynamic effects of diazepam in patients with normal and diseased coronary arteries. Circulation 50: 1210–1216, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Prralvany P, Brald A, Hale ST: Aeation of infarct size by oxygen inhalation following acute coronary occlusion. Circulation 52: 360–368, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    The Norwegian Multicenter Study Group: Timololinduced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 304: 801, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    ß-Blocker Heart Attack Trial Research Group: A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardial infarction: 1. Mortality results. JAMA 247: 1707–1714, 1982.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jelliffe RW, Brooker G: A nomogram for digoxin therapy. Am J Med 57: 63–68, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ribner H, Isaacs E, Frishman W: Lidocaine prophylaxis in acute MI. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 21: 287–90, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coronary Risk Handbook. New York, American Heart Association, 1973.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blumenthal S, Jesse NJ: Prevention of atherosclerosis. A pediatric problem. Hosp Prac 8: 81–90, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kannel WB, Gordon T (eds.): The Framingham Study: An Epidemiological Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease. DHEW Publ. No (NIH) 74–618, U.S. Dept. of HEW, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 1973.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mitchell JC, Blount SG, Blumenthal S, Hoffman JA, Jesse MJ, Lauer RM, Wiedeman WH: The pediatrician and hypertension. Pediatrics 56: 3–5, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Laragh JH: Hypertension Manual: Mechanisms, Methods, and Management. New York, Dun-Donnelley, 1974.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    The 1980 Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med 140: 1280–1285, 1980.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents: Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 90–114. JAMA 213: 1143–1152, 1970.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wolf JL, Dalske. HF, Cass H: Drug Managem•nt of hypertensive emergencies. In Eliot R, Wolf JL, Forker A (eds.): Cardiac Emergencies. New York, Futura, 1977.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Halsted JA: The Laboratory in Clinical Medicine. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1976.Google Scholar
  32. 33.
    Levy RI: Dietary and drug treatment of primary hyperlipoproteinemia. Ann Intern Med 77: 267–294, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reddy PS, Shaver JA, Leonard JJ: Cardiac systolic murmurs. Pathophysiology and differential diagnosis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 14: 1–37, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harvey WP: Innocent versus significant murmurs. Curr Probl Cardiol 1 (8): 7–12, 1976.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Perloff JK: Clinical recognition of aortic stenosis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 10: 323–352, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Roberts WC, Perloff JK, Costantina T: Severe valvular aortic stenosis in patients over 65 years of age. Am J Cardiol 27: 497–506, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Franklin Colón
  • Alan D. Forker
  • Robert S. Eliot

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations